Pathological and clinical investigations of an outbreak of Blackleg disease due to C. chauvoei in cattle in Punjab, Pakistan

  • Riaz Hussain University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • M Tariq Javed Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Iahtasham Khan Section of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Sub-Campus Jhang, Pakistan
  • Abu Baker Siddique Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Bilal Aslam Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Abdul Ghaffar Department of Life Sciences (Zoology), Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Narmeen Tariq Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Abdul Qayyum University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Gamal Wareth Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Jena, Germany
Keywords: Cattle, Clostridial myositis, Clinical signs, Hematology, Pathology

Abstract

Introduction: Clostridium chauvoei (C. chauvoei) is an anaerobic, histotoxic Gram-positive, bacterium causing fatal myonecrosis in livestock with high mortalities. The disease is common in dairy animals, but little is known about the pathophysiology of the disease in exotic (non-native) animals kept under local conditions in Pakistan.

Methodology: Diagnosis of blackleg was made based on hematological and serum biochemical analysis, PCR, necropsy and histopathology.

Results: Clinically sick animals exhibited fever, lameness, subcutaneous gaseous swelling and edema particularly in hindquarter and front legs. Hematological analysis showed increases in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and reduces in number of red blood cells, packed cell volume, leukocytes and differential leukocyte count. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, and creatinine phosphokinase were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the infected animals. At necropsy, swelling areas contained straw-colored fluid with gas bubbles. The muscles were swollen, dark to black and exhibited crepitation sounds at the time of incisions with a rancid odor. Severe pulmonary edema, myocarditis along with petechial hemorrhages, as well as enlargement and congestion of liver and spleen have been observed. Microscopic examination revealed severe inflammatory reaction, edema, and disruption of the myofibrils. Examination of heart, spleen, liver, kidneys, intestine, and lungs showed congestion, severe inflammatory changes with neutrophilic infiltration and necrosis accompanied by dissociation of the normal tissue structure. PCR confirmed C. chauvoei in exudates and different samples of muscles.

Conclusion: The pathophysiology should be considered in diagnosis of blackleg. The disease is exist in the non-native cattle farms and biosecurity measures have to be elevated.

Published
2019-09-30
How to Cite
1.
Hussain R, Javed MT, Khan I, Siddique AB, Aslam B, Ghaffar A, Tariq N, Qayyum A, Wareth G (2019) Pathological and clinical investigations of an outbreak of Blackleg disease due to C. chauvoei in cattle in Punjab, Pakistan. J Infect Dev Ctries 13:786-793. doi: 10.3855/jidc.11635
Section
Original Articles