Schistosomiasis among pregnant women in Njombe-Penja health district, Cameroon
Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with endemic foci in Cameroon. Epidemiological data on schistosomiasis in pregnancy are scarce in the country. This study describes the prevalence, diversity and factors associated with schistosomiasis in pregnant women in Njombe-Penja where schistosomiasis was first reported in 1968.
Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-two (282) pregnant women were enrolled at first antenatal consultation between April and December 2016. A questionnaire was used to document socio-economic and obstetric information. Stool and terminal urine samples were collected and analysed using Kato-Katz/Formol-Ether concentration techniques and centrifugation methods respectively. Haemoglobin concentration was measured from finger prick blood, using an URIT®-12 electronic haemoglobinometer. Bivariate and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses with Epi-Info version 18.104.22.168. Statistical significance level was set at 0.05.
Results: The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.91%. Schistosoma guineensis, S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were found in 0.35% (n = 1), 4.96% (n = 14) and 28.01% (n = 79) of participants, respectively. Co-infection with two species of Schistosoma was found in 4.44% of these women. The prevalence of this disease was significantly higher in younger women (≤ 20 years old) and among residents of Njombe. All S. haematobium infected women were anemic and infection was associated with significantly lower haemoglobin levels (p = 0.02).
Conclusion: The prevalence of schistosomiasis is high among pregnant women in Njombe-Penja, with some adverse effects on blood levels. Three Schistosoma species were found. Female of childbearing age should be considered for mass drug administration.
Copyright (c) 2019 Calvin Tonga, Charlie Ngo Bayoi, Flore Chanceline Tchanga, Jacqueline Félicité Yengue, Godlove Bunda Wepnje, Hervé Nyabeyeu Nyabeyeu, Lafortune Kangam, Larissa Koudjip Nono, Patrick Akono Ntonga, Léopold Gustave Lehman
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