Antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in a third level pediatric hospital in Mexico City

  • David Abraham Rosado-Rosado Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 13, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Cancún, Quintana Roo, México
  • Rafael Arias-Flores Hospital de Pediatría “Doctor Silvestre Frenk Freund”, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico
  • José Guillermo Vázquez-Rosales Hospital de Pediatría “Doctor Silvestre Frenk Freund”, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Roberto Joaquín Robles-Ramírez Hospital de Pediatría “Doctor Silvestre Frenk Freund”, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Rodolfo del Campo-Ortega División de Evaluación de las Prestaciones Médicas, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Ivan de Jesus Ascencio-Montiel Coordinación de Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic consumption, Health Care-Associated Infections

Abstract

Introduction: The increasing resistance to antibiotics is a public health problem and an imminent therapeutic challenge in hospitals. In this report we aimed to analyze the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in a third-level pediatric hospital.

Methodology: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the information from the microbiology and pharmacy databases of the Pediatric Hospital “Doctor Silvestre Frenk Freund”, during the period 2015-2018. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance by microorganisms and dispensed grams of selected antibiotics were calculated annually. Antibiotic resistance trend over the time was evaluated using the Chi-square trends test and to assess the correlation between the dispensed grams of antibiotics with their antimicrobial resistance prevalence, we calculated the Pearson's coefficient (r).

Results: A total of 4,327 isolated bacterial samples were analyzed (56.5% Gram-positive and 44.5% Gram-negative). Most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. We found a significant increase in resistance to clindamycin and oxacillin for CoNS and significant decrease in nitrofurantoin and amikacin resistance for E. coli and K. pneumoniae. We observed a strong positive and statistically significant correlation between amikacin resistance prevalence and amikacin dispensed grams for P. aeruginosa (r = 0.95, p = 0.05).

Conclusions: The antibiotic resistance profile showed by our study highlights the need of an appropriate antibiotic control use in the Hospital setting.

Published
2021-04-30
How to Cite
1.
Rosado-Rosado DA, Arias-Flores R, Vázquez-Rosales JG, Robles-Ramírez RJ, del Campo-Ortega R, Ascencio-Montiel I de J (2021) Antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in a third level pediatric hospital in Mexico City. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:573-578. doi: 10.3855/jidc.12646
Section
Brief Original Articles