Antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in a third level pediatric hospital in Mexico City
Introduction: The increasing resistance to antibiotics is a public health problem and an imminent therapeutic challenge in hospitals. In this report we aimed to analyze the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in a third-level pediatric hospital.
Methodology: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the information from the microbiology and pharmacy databases of the Pediatric Hospital “Doctor Silvestre Frenk Freund”, during the period 2015-2018. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance by microorganisms and dispensed grams of selected antibiotics were calculated annually. Antibiotic resistance trend over the time was evaluated using the Chi-square trends test and to assess the correlation between the dispensed grams of antibiotics with their antimicrobial resistance prevalence, we calculated the Pearson's coefficient (r).
Results: A total of 4,327 isolated bacterial samples were analyzed (56.5% Gram-positive and 44.5% Gram-negative). Most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. We found a significant increase in resistance to clindamycin and oxacillin for CoNS and significant decrease in nitrofurantoin and amikacin resistance for E. coli and K. pneumoniae. We observed a strong positive and statistically significant correlation between amikacin resistance prevalence and amikacin dispensed grams for P. aeruginosa (r = 0.95, p = 0.05).
Conclusions: The antibiotic resistance profile showed by our study highlights the need of an appropriate antibiotic control use in the Hospital setting.
Copyright (c) 2021 Ivan de Jesus Ascencio-Montiel, David Abraham Rosado-Rosado, Rafael Arias-Flores, José Guillermo Vázquez-Rosales, Roberto Joaquín Robles-Ramírez, Rodolfo del Campo-Ortega
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