Bacterial profile and antibiogram of blood stream infections in febrile neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies
Introduction: Studies have shown a shift in the prevalence from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteraemia in patients with haematological malignancies who develop febrile neutropenia. There are also reports on the spread of drug resistant bacteria among these patients. Information about locally prevalent bacteria and their resistance is important to guide empirical therapy. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteraemia in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies
Methodology: In this retrospective study, patients admitted to Haematology and Oncology units over a period of 6 months with laboratory-confirmed positive blood cultures were enrolled. Information regarding demographic profile, clinical features, and microbiological profile were recorded. Standard procedures were applied to identify the isolates and their resistance patterns. The data collected was analysed statistically.
Results:56 isolates from 53 patients were isolated of which majority were gram negative bacilli (GNB; n = 52 or 93%). Klebsiella pneumoniae (43%, n = 24) was the most frequently isolated bacteria followed by Enterobacter sp (20%, n = 11) and Escherichia coli (12%, n = 7). All isolates were susceptible to colistin. Susceptibility to cefaperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems were 32%, 28.6% and 26.8% respectively. The outcome was fatal for 25 patients.
Conclusions: The study documented an alarming rise in the prevalence of GNB and their resistance. Though the results of the study may represent only the tip of the iceberg, the results demonstrate the need for treatment options for drug resistant isolates and for surveillance cultures.
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