Nasal colonization by methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students

  • Mohammad Al-Tamimi Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
  • Nisreen Himsawi Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
  • Jumana Abu-Raideh Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
  • Deaa Abu jazar Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
  • Hussam Al-jawaldeh Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
  • Sameer Al Haj Mahmoud Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
  • Nawal Hijjawi Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
  • Hasan Hawamdeh Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, MSSA, antibiotics resistance, mecA, Jordan

Abstract

Introduction: Nasal carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common and play an important role in nosocomial infections. The prevalence rate and characterization of nasal carriers of MRSA among medical students in Jordan has not been investigated before.

Methodology: The resistance of S. aureus to several antibiotics was tested using disc diffusion method, automatic Vitek 2, and penicillin binding protein (PBP) 2 slide test. Bacterial species and resistance genes were confirmed using molecular analysis of three relevant genes by real-time PCR. Two hundred ninety nasal swabs were collected from medical students at Hashemite University from June 2015 to August 2016. All participants signed a voluntary consent form and filled a predesigned questionnaire.

Results: The mean age of participants was 19.7 ± 2 years and 61.7% of them were males. 63 out of the 290 (21.7%) samples were identified to have S. aureus, 56 (19.3%) were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 7 (2.4%) were MRSA. S. aureus nasal colonization significantly associates with male gender (OR = 1.7, CI = 0.94-3.18, P = 0.049) and chronic illnesses (OR = 4.0, CI = 1.52-10.65, P = 0.006). Consistency between disc diffusion, Vitek 2, and PBP 2 methods for MRSA screening were satisfactory compared to molecular analysis. All MRSA samples were positive for SCCmec:orfx junction gene (MRSA-specific), nuc gene (S. aureus- specific), mecA gene (PBP-mediated resistant), and PBP2 production. All MRSA isolates were multi-drug resistant and were sensitive to Linezolid, Vancomycin, and Tigecycline.

Conclusions: This study confirms that nasal colonization by MRSA among medical students necessitates further attention to prevent nosocomial infections.

Author Biographies

Mohammad Al-Tamimi, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine

Nisreen Himsawi, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine

Jumana Abu-Raideh, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine

Deaa Abu jazar, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicin

Hussam Al-jawaldeh, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine

Sameer Al Haj Mahmoud, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine

Nawal Hijjawi, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences

Hasan Hawamdeh, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine

Published
2018-05-31
How to Cite
1.
Al-Tamimi M, Himsawi N, Abu-Raideh J, Abu jazar D, Al-jawaldeh H, Al Haj Mahmoud S, Hijjawi N, Hawamdeh H (2018) Nasal colonization by methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students. J Infect Dev Ctries 12:326-335. doi: https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.9908
Section
Original Articles