The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries https://jidc.org/index.php/journal <p>A peer-reviewed open access journal, focusing on global health.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution License" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a title="The Effect of Open Access" href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> info@jidc.org (JIDC Central Office) support@jidc.org (JIDC Tech Support) Wed, 30 Oct 2019 13:58:16 -0700 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Effectiveness of autoclaving in sterilizing reusable medical devices in healthcare facilities https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11433 <p>Medical devices are sterilized before being used for invasive clinical procedures such as surgery, to prevent pathogen transfer. Failure to sterilize medical devices properly presents a risk of healthcare-associated infections. Studies and reports have indicated that inadequately sterilized medical devices are one of the causes of a higher rate of healthcare-associated infections in developing countries. Steam sterilization (autoclaving) is the most widely used method for sterilization and is considered the most robust and cost-effective method for sterilization of medical devices. The effectiveness of steam sterilization can be measured using biological indicators. A literature search was undertaken to understand the effectiveness of autoclaving in sterilizing reusable medical devices in healthcare facilities across the globe. Studies using biological indicators for measuring the effectiveness of autoclaving were obtained. Failures of steam sterilization practices were identified and discussed as a means of identifying factors that might be associated with the ineffectiveness of steam sterilization practices between different countries. The number of studies measuring the effectiveness of steam sterilization is small, and few evaluate the effectiveness of steam sterilization specifically in developing countries. There are fewer studies on higher level healthcare facilities than dental facilities. More evidence about the effectiveness of autoclaving in healthcare facilities is needed to draw firm conclusions, but the data suggest that there are inadequacies in autoclave procedures and operator education.</p> Gopal Panta, Ann K Richardson, Ian C Shaw Copyright (c) 2019 Gopal Panta, Ann K Richardson, Ian C Shaw https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11433 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Epidemiology of Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in Africa https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11373 <p>Introduction: Vertical transmission of Cytomegalovirus (CMV), resulting in congenital CMV (cCMV) infection could have disabling and potentially fatal effects on the foetus or neonate. Although primary infection probably has a higher risk of leading to cCMV, in highly seropositive populations, a significant risk of vertical transmission is thought to be due to CMV reactivation and or reinfection during pregnancy. In this narrative review, we summarise the prevalence of CMV infection and associated risk factors among pregnant African women, in a setting where primary CMV infection usually occurs during infancy.</p> <p>Methodology: A systematic search of literature published between January 2000 and January 2019, retrieved on five bibliographic databases was performed. Search for relevant articles was performed using the following keywords: cytomegalovirus, CMV, infection, antenatal infections, pregnancy, pregnant women, gravidity, developing countries and Africa, with appropriate qualifiers such as OR, AND.</p> <p>Results: Systematic searching retrieved 11 relevant original research papers. Prevalence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies ranged from 60-100% and 0-15.5%, respectively. Prevalence of CMV DNA ranged from 0-29%, depending on the specimen used. However, there was no geographic trend for CMV seroprevalence or CMV DNA prevalence across the African continent. Overall, a substantial percentage of women of reproductive-age were CMV seronegative and at risk of primary infection. Associations of sociodemographic factors with CMV infection were inconsistent across all reviewed studies.</p> <p>Conclusions: The limited data and inconsistency of findings from the few studies carried out in Africa calls for prospective studies comparing prevalence and outcomes of cCMV in infants born to women with both primary and reactivated CMV in Africa.</p> Doreen Mhandire, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Mamadou Kaba, Collet Dandara Copyright (c) 2019 Doreen Mhandire, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Mamadou Kaba, Collet Dandara https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11373 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Colistin nephrotoxicity in critically ill patients after implementation of a new dosing strategy https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11413 <p>Introduction: Intravenous colistin is increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. Highly variable nephrotoxicity rates have been reported. Recent PK/PD studies propose a loading dose and a maintenance dose for better efficacy, but data on the renal toxicity of such regimens are rare. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for nephrotoxicity related to colistin after implementation of a new dosing regimen including a loading dose.</p> <p>Methodology: This was a prospective observational study that was made between adult patients who received a minimum of 48 hours of intravenous colistin from December 2012 to January 2014 at the medical and surgical intensive care units (ICU) of a university hospital. The severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined by the RIFLE criteria.</p> <p>Results: Fifty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria, and 31 (52.5%) developed nephrotoxicity. The APACHE-II score was &gt; 15 in 81% of patients. The median time to nephrotoxicity was 7 days. Patients with AKI were in risk (10.2%), injury (16.9%), failure (25.4%), and none of the patients developed permanent renal insufficiency. A logistic regression model identified three predictors of colistin-associated nephrotoxicity: age; the number of days that estimated target plasma concentrations of colistin were ≥ 3.5 mg/L in the first week of therapy; and baseline creatinine level.</p> <p>Conclusion: In this cohort of severely ill ICU patients, colistin led to a relatively high rate of nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal dose for both efficacy and safety.</p> Ayse Serra Ozel, Önder Ergönül, Volkan Korten Copyright (c) 2019 Ayse Serra Ozel, Onder Ergonul, Volkan Korten https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11413 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Risk factors for linezolid-associated thrombocytopenia and negative effect of carbapenem combination https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/10859 <p>Introduction: Linezolid is a synthetic antimicrobial agent with a broad spectrum of activity against virtually all Gram-positive bacteria. Although linezolid is generally well tolerated, the prolonged use of linezolid can lead to myelosuppression, including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. The aim of this study was investigating the risk factors for thrombocytopenia in patients who received linezolid therapy.</p> <p>Methodology: This retrospective study was performed on patients who received linezolid therapy between July 2007 and December 2017. Thrombocytopenia was defined as either a platelets count of &lt; 100×10<sup>9</sup>/L or a 25% reduction from the baseline platelet count.</p> <p>Results: A total of 371 patients, (198 (53%) male and 173(47%) female were included into the study. Mean duration of therapy was 12.81 ± 5.19 days. Linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia was detected in a total of 111 patients. Using the univariate analysis advanced sex, serum urea concentration, baseline platelet level and low eGFR value were found to be risk factors for linezolid associated thrombocytopenia (p &lt; 0.05). According to a multivariate analysis, patients undergoing carbapenem treatment combination therapy (p = 0.003) and with a baseline platelet level of &lt; 200×10<sup>9</sup>/L (p = 0.00) were found to have a high risk of developing thrombocytopenia.</p> <p>Conclusions: Several factors may influence of linezolid associated thrombocytopenia. Platelet count should be monitored during therapy and thrombocytopenia should be kept in mind in patients with baseline platelet level of &lt; 200×10<sup>9</sup>/L, low eGFR, linezolid-carbapenem combination therapy.</p> Esra Kaya Kılıç, Cemal Bulut, Meliha Çağla Sönmezer, Özlem Ozel, Çiğdem Ataman Hatipoğlu, Günay Tuncer Ertem, Necla Tülek, Sami Kınıklı Copyright (c) 2019 Esra Kaya Kılıç, Cemal Bulut, Meliha Çağla Sönmezer, Özlem Özel, Çiğdem Ataman Hatipoğlu, Günay Tuncer Ertem, Necla Tülek, Sami Kınıklı https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/10859 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Virulence genes and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients in the Northwestern of Morocco https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/10675 <p>Introduction: <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>is an ubiquitous bacterium causes various community-acquired and nosocomial infections. In this investigation, we aimed to screen the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the prevalence of virulence factor genes in a set of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> isolated from nosocomial and community-acquired infections in the Northwestern of Morocco.</p> <p>Methodology: A total of 155 of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>strains were collected (January 2015 - December 2016) from nosocomial and community-acquired infections at hospital centers and clinical laboratories in the Northwestern of Morocco. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by the standard disk diffusion method. In addition, PCR assays were used for screening five virulence encoding genes (<em>lasB</em>, <em>algD</em>, <em>plcH</em>, <em>exoA,</em> and <em>exoS</em>).</p> <p>Results: Our results revealed that high level of antimicrobial resistance was detected towards aztreonam (27.1%) followed by meropenem (14.2%). The resistance to imipenem was significantly higher in strains isolated from nosocomial infections (12.7%) than strains isolated from community-acquired infections (1.5%). The results highlighted that <em>lasB</em> (98.7%) and <em>exoS</em> (98.7%) were the most frequent virulence genes.</p> <p>Conclusions: This survey provides data about phenotypic and genotypic properties of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> emerged in the Northwestern of Morocco. It could be helpful for the health workers to improve infection control measures and to establish a surveillance system.</p> Chaimae Elmouaden, Amin Laglaoui, Latifa Ennanei, Mohammed Bakkali, Mohammed Abid Copyright (c) 2019 Chaimae Elmouaden, Amin Laglaoui, Latifa Ennanei, Mohammed Bakkali, Mohammed Abid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/10675 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic co-resistance among carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11410 <p>Introduction: The spread of carbapenem-resistant <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> (CRAB) is difficult to control especially in the hospitals due to the successful mobilization and evolution of the genetic elements harboring the resistant determinants. The study was conducted to examine the distribution of aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and sulfonamide-resistant determinants among CRAB isolates that carry the <em>bla</em>OXA-23 gene.</p> <p>Methodology: For a total of 160 CRAB strains isolated at tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan that mainly carried blaOXA-23 gene were included in the study to evaluate the assortment of antibiotic resistance genes.</p> <p>Results: The susceptibility rates of CRAB for other than beta-lactam drugs were 2.5% for both ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides and 18% and 25% for sulfonamides and tetracyclines, respectively. Polymyxin B (MIC<sub>90</sub>, 1 g/mL) Colistin (MIC<sub>90</sub>, 1 g/mL) and Tigecycline (MIC<sub>90</sub>, 2 g/mL) were most active against these extensively drug-resistant CRAB isolates. The isolates were found to possess various genes mainly the <em>tet</em>B and <em>sul</em>2 for tetracycline and sulfonamide but the genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides were varied with various combinations.</p> <p>Conclusion: Despite the CRAB clones containing blaOXA-23 have been previously reported in Pakistani hospitals, the screening of genetic determinants responsible for other antimicrobial agents is crucial for developing an effective surveillance and mitigation system for infection management.</p> Mohsin Khurshid, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique, Farrukh Azeem, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Sarfraz, Muhammad Saqalein, Zeeshan Taj, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Muhammad Usman Qamar, Asim Shahzad Copyright (c) 2019 Mohsin Khurshid, Muhammad Hidayat RaMohsin Khurshid, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique, Farrukh Azeem, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Sarfraz, Muhammad Saqalein, Zeeshan Taj, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Muhammad Usman Qamar, Asim Shahzad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11410 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Is genital tract infection related to tubal diseases in infertile Vietnamese women? https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11632 <p>Introduction: The goal of this study was to identify the profile of genital tract infections and their relationship with clinical and demographic parameters as well as tubal diseases among infertile women in Vietnam.</p> <p>Methodology: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we enrolled 597 women undergoing infertility treatment at the Center for Reproductive Endocrinology &amp; Infertility, Hue University Hospital, Vietnam. All of the study participants were interviewed and examined by a gynecologist. Consecutive tests were then conducted including direct microscopy examination (wet mount and Gram stain), vaginal culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for chlamydia diagnosis from a cervical canal swab, and a blood test for syphilis detection. A hysterosalpingogram (HSG) was carried out to examine the uterine cavity and Fallopian tubes.</p> <p>Results: A gynecologic infection was diagnosed in 43.4% (259/597) of the infertile women. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common condition at 19.6%of the cases. <em>Candida</em> spp., <em>Chlamydia trachomatis</em>, and <em>Trichomonas vaginalis</em> infections accounted for 17.4%, 3.7%, and 0.3%, respectively. Normal HSG results accounted for 87.4% of the women while 5.5% had 2-sided tubal occlusions, 5.4% had 1-sided tubal occlusions, 1.0% had 1-sided hydrosalpinx, and 0.7% had 2-sided hydrosalpinx. There was no significant association between tubal diseases and current infections; however, aerobic vaginitis increased the risk of tubal diseases by 2.4 times.</p> <p>Conclusions: A marked proportion of infertile Vietnamese women have genital tract infections that can significantly influence their reproductive function and performance. These infections should be routinely screened and treated properly to prevent their consequences, such as infertility, which is especially important in developing countries.</p> Minh Tam Le, Thi Le Na Nguyen, Duong Dinh Le, Tram Viet Quynh Ngo, Anh Thi Chau Nguyen, Bach Hoang Nguyen, Huy Vu Quoc Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Cao, Andres Salumets, Reet Mändar Copyright (c) 2019 Minh Tam Le, Le Na Thi Nguyen, Duong Dinh Le, Quynh Tram Viet Ngo, Chau Anh Thi Nguyen, Bach Hoang Nguyen, Huy Vu Quoc Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Cao, Andres Salumets, Reet Mändar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11632 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Threshold value of the anti-HCV test in the diagnosis of HCV infection https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11657 <p>Introduction: In the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the first step is screening for anti-HCV antibodies, and positive results are generally confirmed with nucleic acid amplification tests. Recent studies have reported that more compatible results have been obtained with the HCV RNA test using signal to cut-off (S/Co) values &gt;1, which are the routine reactivity threshold for the anti-HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test. The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate S/Co value for the anti-HCV test, predicting HCV infection.</p> <p>Methodology: Comparisons were made between results of 559 patients who underwent anti-HCV with ECLIA method and HCV RNA tests with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. By accepting the HCV-RNA test as the gold standard for HCV infection, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the ECLIA test were determined and statistical “receiver operating characteristic” (ROC) analysis was applied to determine the most appropriate threshold.</p> <p>Results: Between January 2013 and April 2018, a total of 81,203 serum samples were examined. Of 559 anti-HCV positive patients, HCV RNA positivity was determined in 214 (38.2 %). According to the ROC analysis results, the most appropriate S/Co value was determined as 12.27, at which sensitivity was 94.4 %, and specificity 97.4 %. The positive and negative predictive values were calculated at the high rate of 95.7% and 96.6% respectively.</p> <p>Conclusions: The results of this study investigating the anti-HCV reactivity values which could be used in the diagnosis of HCV infection determined the most appropriate value to be 12.27.</p> Özlem Kirişci; Ahmet Calıskan Copyright (c) 2019 Özlem Kirişci; Ahmet Calıskan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11657 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus epidemic impact on healthcare workers’ risk perceptions, work and personal lives https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11753 <p>Introduction: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to cause frequent outbreaks in hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Since healthcare workers (HCWs) have a higher risk of acquiring and spreading MERS-CoV, we aimed to evaluate the perceived risk and anxiety level of HCWs in Saudi Arabia regarding MERS.</p> <p>Methodology: An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was sent online to HCWs at King Khalid University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. The total knowledge and anxiety scores were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of high anxiety scores.</p> <p>Results: Of 591 (70%) HCWs that responded, 284 (55%), 164 (32%), and 68 (13.2%) were physicians, nurses, and technicians, respectively. Physicians obtained a lower median knowledge score (6/9) compared to other professions (7/9). The mean anxiety score was similar for physicians and other HCWs (3/5); however, non-physicians expressed higher levels of anxiety toward the risk of transmitting MERS-CoV to their families, with an anxiety score of 4/5. The ability of the virus to cause severe disease or death was the most frequently reported reason for worry by physicians (89.7%) and non-physicians (87.2%). Overall, 80% of physicians and 90% of non-physicians reported improvement in adherence to hand hygiene and standard precautions while in hospital (<em>p = </em>0.002). Concern over transmitting MERS-CoV to family members was the most predictive factor for anxiety among non-physician HCWs.</p> <p>Conclusion: A significant proportion of HCWs expressed anxiety about the risk of acquiring MERS-CoV infection. Healthcare institutions need to develop an integrated psychological response for HCWs to the occupational and psychological challenge of MERS-CoV outbreaks.</p> Sarah Alsubaie, Mohamad Hani Temsah, Ayman A Al-Eyadhy, Ibrahim Gossady, Gamal M Hasan, Abdulkarim Al-rabiaah, Amr A Jamal, Ali AN Alhaboob, Fahad Alsohime, Ali M Somily Copyright (c) 2019 Sarah Alsubaie, Mohamad Hani Temsah, Ayman Al-Eyadhy, Ibrahim Gossady, Gamal Hasan, Abdulkarim Al-rabiaah, Amr Jamal, Ali Alhaboob, Fahad Alsohime, Ali Mohammed Somily https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11753 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Evaluation of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria in a territory hospital in Turkey https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11552 <p>Introduction: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) which develops without a known stimulation is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema or both for longer than six weeks. Infections, autoimmunity, food intolerance and internal parasitic infections are supposed to be underlying causes of CSU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal parasites in children and adult patients diagnosed as CSU, to determine the frequency of parasites in chronic urticaria, and to compare these patients with healthy demographic control groups.</p> <p>Methodology: Seventy six children and 38 adult patients with CSU were examined in terms of parasitic infections. The patients whom parasites were detected received anti-parasitic therapy and the improvements in CSU symptoms were evaluated. Stool samples were examined with direct microscopic examination (native-lugol), stool concentration and trichrome staining methods.</p> <p>Results: In pediatric patient group, 18.4% (n = 14) of the stool samples were positive for <em>Blastocystis</em> sp., 2.6% (n = 2), <em>Dientamoeba</em> <em>fragilis</em> and 1.3% (n = 1), <em>Giardia</em> <em>duodenalis</em>. In adult patient group, <em>Blastocystis</em> sp. was detected in 18.4% (n = 7) of the stool samples. Anti-parasitic therapy yielded substantial improvement in urticaria symptoms in 57.1% of pediatric and 60.0% of adult patients.</p> <p>Conclusions: <em>Blastocystis</em> sp. and <em>D</em>. <em>fragilis</em> may play a role in chronic urticaria which seriously disrupts the patient's quality of life. Parasitic infections should not be neglected in patients with cutaneous manifestations.</p> Sedat Vezir, Filiz Kaya, Emine Vezir, Nermin Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Kudret Adiloğlu Copyright (c) 2019 Filiz Kaya, Sedat Vezir, Emine Vezir, Nermin Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Kudret Adiloğlu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11552 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Ascaris lumbricoides infection: Still a threat for iron deficiency anaemia in 2-year-old Bangladeshi slum-dwelling children https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11340 <p>Introduction: Although parasitic infections lead to extracorporeal iron loss resulting in iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), data associating IDA with parasitic infections in the first two years of life are limited. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and severity of anaemia and IDA during this period and to investigate the association between intestinal parasitic infections and IDA.</p> <p>Methodology: Data was collected under MAL-ED study protocol in Bauniabadh slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The presence of parasites in stool was detected using wet preparation microscopy at 7, 15, and 24 months. Anaemia was defined as serum haemoglobin &lt; 11 g/dL and IDA was defined by serum haemoglobin &lt; 11 g/dL, serum ferritin &lt; 12 g/L and soluble transferrin receptor &gt; 8.3 mg/L. Logistic regression was done to quantify the relation between stool parasite and IDA separately on samples collected at 7, 15 and 24 months.</p> <p>Results: 265 children were enrolled after birth and samples were collected at 7, 15 and 24 months. Anaemia was detected at 7, 15 and 24 months in 117 (48.8%), 106 (44.2%) and 67 (27.9%) cases whereas IDA was found in 15 (6.3%), 47 (19.6%) and 39 (16.3%) cases, respectively. Iron deficiency anaemia at 24 months was significantly associated with <em>Ascaris lumbricoides</em> infection (OR 3.76; 95 % CI, 1.08-13.11).</p> <p>Conclusions: The prevalence of anaemia and IDA in slum dwelling children of Dhaka is high and <em>Ascaris lumbricoides </em>infection was found to have a strong association with IDA at 24 months of age.</p> Md. Shabab Hossain, Subhasish Das, Md. Amran Gazi, Mustafa Mahfuz, Tahmeed Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Md. Shabab Hossain, Subhasish Das, Md. Amran Gazi, Mustafa Mahfuz, Tahmeed Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11340 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Spatial distribution and environmental risk factors in the state of Pará, Brazilian Eastern Amazon https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11573 <p>Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies and is considered a great environmental and public health problem. Thus, this work presents initial results of the analyses about the relationship between the spatial distribution of this disease and its environmental risk factors in three municipalities, in the state of Pará, Brazil, from 2012 to 2016.</p> <p>Methodology: It was used data from the Ministry of Health, the National Institute for Space Research and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The statistical and spacial analysis of the variables were done using G-test goodness-of-fit, kernel interpolation technique and the Bivariate Global Moran Index (I).</p> <p>Results: The analyses showed that the most affected individuals were males, adults, low schooling, residents in rural areas and small farmers. The disease spatial distribution was not homogeneous in the municipalities and it was associated to different relationships between the land use and occupation and the notificated cases density, with direct spatial autocorrelation.</p> <p>Conclusions: The deforestation was the most significant risk factor linked to the cases occurrence in all the studied area. We emphasize the need of intensification of epidemiological and environmental surveillance actions in the studied areas.</p> Nelson Veiga Gonçalves, Claudia do Socorro Carvalho Miranda, Rodrigo Junior Farias da Costa, Juan Andrade Guedes, Erica Silva de Souza Matsumura, Simone Beverly Nascimento da Costa, Selma Kazumi da Trindade Noguchi, Luis Henrique Rocha Guimarães, Rafael Aleixo Coelho de Oliveira, Lívia Simone Alves Tavares, Vera Regina da Cunha Menezes Palácios, Marília Brasil Xavier Copyright (c) 2019 Nelson Veiga Gonçalves, Claudia do Socorro Carvalho Miranda, Rodrigo Junior Farias da Costa, Juan Andrade Guedes, Erica Silva de Souza Matsumura, Simone Beverly Nascimento da Costa, Selma Kazumi da Trindade Noguchi, Luis Henrique Rocha Guimarães, Rafael Aleixo Coelho de Oliveira, Lívia Simone Alves Tavares, Vera Regina da Cunha Menezes Palácios, Marília Brasil Xavier https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11573 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Thyroid abscess due to Eikenella corrodens in a pediatric patient https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11057 <p><em>Eikenella corrodens</em> is one of the HACEK bacteria that is commensal microorganism of the oropharngeal flora.<em> E. corrodens </em>has been increasingly reported to cause pyogenic abscesses, especially in diabetic or immunocompromised adults. It is less frequently reported in immunocompotent children. Here, we report a deep neck infection, including the thyroid gland, in a previously healthy girl. <em>E. corrodens</em> was the only microorganism isolated in two different cultures. Antibiotic susceptibility is variable, in contrast to other oropharyngeal pathogens. Thus, to avoid delayed treatment, <em>E. corrodens </em>should always be considered in infections of the head and neck area.</p> Deniz Aygun; Beste Akdeniz, Gokhan Aygun, Haluk Cokugras; Yıldız Camcıoglu Copyright (c) 2019 Deniz Aygun, Beste Akdeniz, Gokhan Aygun, Haluk Cokugras, Yıldız Camcıoglu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11057 Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700