Antibiotic resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in India: a multicenter study
Keywords: CA-UTI, antibiotic susceptibility, India
AbstractBackground: Empiric treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) is determined by the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of uropathogens in a population. This study was conducted to determine patterns of resistance amongst CA-uropathogens in India, to help establish local guidelines on treatment of CA-UTI. Methodology: 531 consecutive positive urine cultures taken from adult non-pregnant females attending outpatient clinics of five hospitals in Delhi, India, were analysed. Sensitivity testing was done for ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (SXT), amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem in each isolate. Results: E. coli comprised 68%; Klebsiella 16.9%; Proteus 5.5%; Enterobacter 5.3%; Staphylococcus saprophyticus 2.8%; and others 1.5% of the isolates. Furthermore, 26.9% of the gram negative isolates were ESBL producers. Antibiotic sensitivity of all the gram negative organisms showed that 35.8% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin; 30% to SXT; 17.7% to amoxicillin; 41.6% to amoxicillin/clavulanate; 75.6% to amikacin; 65.7% to nitrofurantoin; 90.2% to piperacillin-tazobactam; and 100% to meropenem. Conclusion: High levels of ESBL producers among gram negative CA-uropathogens was seen in our country. This, along with the alarming rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin, SXT and amoxicillin, precludes the use of these commonly used antibiotics for empiric treatment of CA-UTI in India.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).