Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria


  • Kayode Fashae University of Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Folasade Ogunsola University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • Frank M Aarestrup National Food Institute
  • Rene S Hendriksen National Food Institute



Salmonella, Nigeria, antimicrobial resistance, human, chicken, bacteriaemia.


Background: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007.

Methodology: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms in 2007. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results: Thirty-nine (4%) Salmonella isolates were obtained from human blood and 70 (11%) from chicken fecal samples. The human isolates revealed nine different serovars; 82% were non-typhoidal Salmonella and 18% were (S. Typhi). The majority of serovars from humans were S. Enteritidis (33%), S. Dublin (18%), and S. Typhimurium (18%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ampicillin ranged from 36% to 59% for the human isolates.

Eight different serovars were obtained from chickens; S. Virchow (71%) predominated. A high frequency (87%) of reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was observed among the chicken isolates. A high frequency of resistance to tetracycline (93%), nalidixic acid (81%), and sulfamethoxazole (87%) was observed. Rare serovars such as S. Apapa, S. Mouschaui, S. Jukestown, S. Oritamerin, and S. Onireke were isolated from both humans and chickens. Identical serovars were not found among human and chicken isolates.

Conclusions: This study indicates that chickens are not a reservoir of Salmonella causing bacteraemia among humans in Ibadan, Nigeria. Studies locating the reservoirs responsible for invasive salmonellosis in humans are needed. Controls and targeted interventions against S. Virchow and the frequent occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in chickens should be initiated to prevent the spread of this serovar.

Author Biographies

Kayode Fashae, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Kayode Fashae
Address: Department of Microbiology
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Speciality: Medical Microbiology
Areas of expertise: Antimicrobial resistance and mechanism, foodborne pathogens, diagnostics

My research focus is foodborne pathogen and antimicrobial resistance

I am involved in the teaching of pathogenic microbiology and immunology courses in the Department of Microbiology University of Ibadan Nigeria. I am also involved in the supervision of student research projects. In addition, I am involved in the training of laboratory staff in microbiology techniques such as culturing and identification of microorganisms, storage and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

I have been nominated in my Department/Faculty to be part of a linkage progamme on Medical Microbiology between University of Ibadan and Magde University Germany

I am author of three peer-reviewed articles.


Folasade Ogunsola, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Folashade Ogunsola
Address: Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Speciality: Medical Microbiology
Areas of expertise: Infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, diagnostics

Folasade Ogunsola

The main focus of my research is clinical microbiology and antimicrobial resistance

Since 1997 I have been involved in the teaching and supervision of postgraduate students. I am also involved in the training and supervision of resident doctors in Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology. I am also a consultant to Lagos University Teaching Hospital on diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

 I am currently the head of department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology. I coordinate and supervise diagnostic activities of Medical Microbiology Laboratories of both College of Medicine University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Furthermore, I also coordinate training of the laboratory Staff.

I am author of 47 peer-reviewed articles.


Frank M Aarestrup, National Food Institute


Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology

WHO Collaborating Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance in Food borne Pathogens 

EU Community Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance,

Division of Microbiology and Risk Assessment

DTU Food

The global spread of infectious pathogenic bacteria, including those resistant to antimicrobial agents, is one of the greatest human health problems.

My research has primarily targeted the association between use of antimicrobial agents to farm animals and the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance including the human health consequences.

It has become increasingly clear that bacteria do not respect traditional borders and with the increased globalisation a problem in one country has become a problem for all countries. Thus, the research has increasingly been directed towards global spread of initially foodborne, but now also other pathogenic bacteria.

The research has contributed to the internatioanl standards for detection and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in food borne pathogens and had major influence on the ways antimicrobial agents are used worldwide.

The global focus is also documented by the fact that the research has been conducted with more than 400 co-authors, in more than 135 institutions in more than 35 countries. Furthermore, DTU-Food has partly based on the research been appointed WHO and EU reference laboratory for antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens.

Rene S Hendriksen, National Food Institute

Rene S. Hendriksen, PhD 


Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology

Division of Microbiology and Risk Assessment

DTU Food

Technical University of Denmark


National Food Institute

Bülowsvej 27

Building B

1790  København V

Direct +45 35886288

Mobil +45 22450763

Fax +45 35886001

My main focus is research in global epidemiology of foodbone pathogens and antimicrobial resistance.


Since 1999, I have mainly been involved in activities related to DTUs role as WHO Collaborating Centre and Community reference laboratory for the Commission and acts as the deputy for the centre. 


I have facilitated and conducted more than 16 international laboratory training courses for more than 340 scientists from more than 50 countries in antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of foodborne pathogens and molecular techniques. In addition, I have been the author of 17 laboratory protocols used for all WHO GSS international training course of which more than 50 have been conducted since 1999.


I am responsible for conducting national and international proficiency test programs (WHO and CRL external quality assurance systems) in antimicrobial susceptibility testing, serotyping of Salmonella and identification of Campylobacter and mastitis pathogens.


I am author of 25 peer-reviewed articles in international refereed journals.




How to Cite

Fashae K, Ogunsola F, Aarestrup FM, Hendriksen RS (2010) Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries 4:484–494. doi: 10.3855/jidc.909



Original Articles