Hospitalization patterns and outcomes of infants with Influenza A(H1N1) in Kuwait
Introduction: Infants represent an important risk group for influenza associated hospitalizations and mortality. This study evaluated the clinical presentations, hospitalization course and outcome of infants hospitalized with the pandemic influenza A H1N1 [Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09] in relation to their previous health status.
Methodology: We conducted a retrospective chart review of hospitalized infants with laboratory-confirmed Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in two hospitals in Kuwait. Demographic characteristics, pre-existing high-risk medical conditions, clinical presentations, complications and mortality were analyzed. Previously healthy infants’ data were compared with infants with pre-existing high-risk medical conditions for severity of the illness and outcome.
Results: We identified 62 infants comprising 32% of all admissions with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. The median age ± SD was 7 ± 4 months. Nineteen (31%) had pre-existing high-risk medical conditions. Complications were documented in 53% of previously healthy infants compared to 47% in high-risk infants. Mean duration of hospitalization was 4.9 days in healthy infants and 6.7 for infants with high-risk medical conditions. Bacterial pneumonia complicated 7% of previously healthy infants compared to 26% with high-risk conditions (P = 0.03). Four infants (6.5%) required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), of whom three had high risk medical condition.
Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized infants with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were previously healthy. Prolonged hospitalization, ICU admission and mortality were more observed in infants with high-risk medical conditions. According to the latest Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations, annual influenza vaccination is recommended for any child six months of age and older, particularly those with risk factors.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).