Sero-epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Plateau State, Nigeria

  • Nenfort Edward Gomwalk University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
  • Lohya Nimzing University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
  • John Danjuma Mawak University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
  • Nimzing G. Ladep University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
  • Stephen B. Dapiap The Carter Center, Jos, Nigeria
  • Demas Damshak Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
  • Esther Kim University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
  • Christiana Barau Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Plateau State, Jos, Nigeria
  • John K. Jinung Plateau AIDs Control Agency, Jos, Nigeria
  • Bala M. Rumtong Plateau AIDs Control Agency, Jos, Nigeria
  • Yusuf A. Agabi University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Keywords: sero-epidemiology, human immunodeficiency virus, Plateau State, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: Previous sentinel surveys of HIV in Nigeria studied pregnant women attending antenatal care, thereby omitting other important high-risk groups. We therefore investigated the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in low- and high-risk populations in the state of Plateau, Nigeria.

Methodology: Blood samples were collected by venepuncture from 5,021 adults aged ≥15 years between August and October 2008. At least one major town and one rural community were selected in each Local Government Area (LGA). Samples were initially screened with a rapid HIV testing kit; reactive samples were further tested using Stat Pak.  Discordant samples were confirmed using Genie-II.

Results: Of 5,021 subjects screened, 245 (4.88%) were seropositive. Local Government prevalence ranged from 0.68% in Bassa to 16.07% in Jos North. On average, LGAs in the Southern Senatorial Zone had higher rates. Most (over 80%) positive cases were younger than 40 years. Females had a significantly higher (6.85%) prevalence than males (2.72%). Age-specific prevalence was higher among females aged 25 to 29 years (2.09%). Risk factors identified  for acquisition of HIV infection were previous history of STDs (6, 16.28%); men having sex with men (2, 11.76%); having multiple sexual partners (97; 10.49%); intravenous drug use (10, 7.58%); sharing of sharp objects (20, 4.82%); and history of blood transfusion (21, 3.65%).

Conclusion: The seemingly higher prevalence recorded in this survey could be attributed to the  inclusion of high- and low-risk groups in the general population, unlike previous reports which studied only antenatal care attendees. This survey provides useful baseline information for further studies.

Author Biographies

Nenfort Edward Gomwalk, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Department Of Medical Microbiology-Prof.

Faculty of Medical Sciences

University of Jos

P.M.B.2084, Jos

Nigeria

Lohya Nimzing, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Department Of Medical Microbiology-Reader

Faculty of Medical Sciences

University of Jos

P.M.B.2084, Jos

John Danjuma Mawak, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Department Of Microbiology-Reader

Faculty of Natural Sciences

University of Jos

P.M.B.2084, Jos

Nimzing G. Ladep, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Department of Medicine

Faculty of Medical Sciences

University of Jos

P.M.B.2084, Jos

Stephen B. Dapiap, The Carter Center, Jos, Nigeria

The Carter Centre

Jos,

Plateau State,

Nigeria

Demas Damshak, Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria

Plateau Specialist Hospital

Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Esther Kim, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Department Of Medical Microbiology

Faculty of Medical Sciences

University of Jos

P.M.B.2084, Jos

Christiana Barau, Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Plateau State, Jos, Nigeria

Special Treatment Clinic

Jos University Teaching Hospital

Plateau State, Nigeria.

John K. Jinung, Plateau AIDs Control Agency, Jos, Nigeria

Plateau AIDS Control Agency

Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Bala M. Rumtong, Plateau AIDs Control Agency, Jos, Nigeria

Plateau AIDS Control Agency

Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Yusuf A. Agabi, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Department Of Microbiology

Faculty of Natural Sciences

University of Jos

P.M.B.2084, Jos

Published
2012-12-15
How to Cite
1.
Gomwalk NE, Nimzing L, Mawak JD, Ladep NG, Dapiap SB, Damshak D, Kim E, Barau C, Jinung JK, Rumtong BM, Agabi YA (2012) Sero-epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Plateau State, Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries 6:860-869. doi: 10.3855/jidc.1872
Section
Original Articles