Intestinal parasitic and candida infection associated with HIV infection in Cameroon

  • Leopold Gustave Lehman University of Douala, Cameroon
  • Lafortune Kangam University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
  • Marthe-Lilianne Mbenoun University of Douala, Cameroon
  • Eveline Zemo Nguepi Douala Laquintinie Hospital, Cameroon
  • Noël Essomba National AIDS Control Committee, Littoral region, Cameroon
  • Calvin Tonga University of Buea, Cameroon
  • Charles Felix Bilong Bilong University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
Keywords: intestinal pathogens, CD4 count, HIV infection

Abstract

Introduction: HIV causes progressive impairment of the cellular immune system leading to increased susceptibility to infectious agents. Parasitic infestations are common in HIV-infected patients and usually lead to diarrhoea. Few studies have addressed the issue of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected persons in Cameroon.  This investigation was conducted in Douala, Cameroon, to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in HIV-infected patients, taking into account their immune status and treatment course.

Methodology: Stool and blood samples were collected from 201 HIV-positive patients for the investigation of intestinal pathogens and CD4+ counts.

Results: Fifty-six (27.9%) patients harbored pathogens. The most frequent pathogens were Candida spp. (14.9%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.5%), Entamoeba histolytica, and Entamoeba dispar (3%). The presence of pathogens was significantly associated with diarrhoea, as they were found in 48.6% of diarrhoeic stools and 23.2% of non-diarrhoeic stools (OR = 3.14, p= 0.0018). Prevalence of pathogens and diarrhoea were significantly higher in patients with CD4+ counts ≤ 200 cells/µL (OR = 2.17, p = 0.0349 and OR = 8.46, p = 0.000019 respectively).

Conclusions: This study highlights the need for investigating intestinal pathogens in HIV-infected patients presenting with diarrhoea, especially when their CD4+ counts are low.

Author Biographies

Leopold Gustave Lehman, University of Douala, Cameroon

Associate professor in parasitology and immunology

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science

 

Lafortune Kangam, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon

Student in Parasitology

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science

 

Marthe-Lilianne Mbenoun, University of Douala, Cameroon

Doctor in Infectiology

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences


Eveline Zemo Nguepi, Douala Laquintinie Hospital, Cameroon
Biologist in Laquintinie Hospital
Noël Essomba, National AIDS Control Committee, Littoral region, Cameroon
Coordinator in National AIDS Control Committee
Calvin Tonga, University of Buea, Cameroon
Student at University of Buea
Charles Felix Bilong Bilong, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon

Professor in Parasitology

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science

Published
2013-02-15
How to Cite
1.
Lehman LG, Kangam L, Mbenoun M-L, Zemo Nguepi E, Essomba N, Tonga C, Bilong Bilong CF (2013) Intestinal parasitic and candida infection associated with HIV infection in Cameroon. J Infect Dev Ctries 7:137-143. doi: 10.3855/jidc.2757
Section
Original Articles