Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes in Cypriot patients

  • George Krashias Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, Cyprus
  • Stavros Bashiardes Department of Molecular Virology, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, Cyprus
  • Alexia Potamitou Gastroenterology/Hepatology Centre, 11 Kyriakou Matse, Nikis Centre, 1086 Nicosia, Cyprus
  • George S Potamitis Gastroenterology/Hepatology Centre, 11 Kyriakou Matse, Nikis Centre, 1086 Nicosia, Cyprus
  • Christina Christodoulou Department of Molecular Virology, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, Cyprus

Abstract

Introduction: The prevalence of H. pylori varies with geographic locations. To date there are no epidemiological data on its prevalence in Cyprus; therefore, we determined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of H. pylori infection in Cypriot patients.

Methodology: DNA extracted from 103 gastric biopsies was analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by PCR using primers for ureA. H. pylori-positive biopsies were characterized by PCR using specific primers for cagA and vacA genes. The presence of clarithromycin-associated resistant mutations such as A2143G, A2142G, A2142C in 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori-positive patients was determined using a real-time PCR allelic discrimination assay.

Results: H. pylori was detected in 41 (39.8%) biopsies and, out of these, 17 (41.5%) tested positive for the cagA gene. The vacA alleles m1, m2, s1a, s1b, and s2 were detected in 7 (17.1%), 34 (82.9%), 12 (29.3%), 2 (4.9%), and 22 (53.7%) isolates, respectively. One (2.4%) biopsy was vacA s1a and s2-positive while one (2.4%) was positive for vacA s1a, s1b, and s2. Three (7.3%) biopsies were untypable for vacA s1, s1b, and s2. The majority (35; 85.4%) of strains were susceptible to clarithromycin while two (4.9%) had the A2143G mutation. Three (7.3%) had a mixture of an A2143G point mutant and susceptible strains while one (2.4%) had a mixture of an A2142G point mutant and susceptible strains.

Conclusions: The distribution of the virulence factors cagA and vacA in the Cypriot strains resembled that of strains circulating in Middle Eastern countries geographically close to Cyprus.

Author Biographies

George Krashias, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, Cyprus
Department of Molecular Virology,Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics,6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, CyprusDepartment of Life and Health Sciences,University of Nicosia,46 Makedonitissas Avenue, 1700, Nicosia,CyprusLecturer
Stavros Bashiardes, Department of Molecular Virology, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, Cyprus
Department of Molecular Virology, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, CyprusScientist
Alexia Potamitou, Gastroenterology/Hepatology Centre, 11 Kyriakou Matse, Nikis Centre, 1086 Nicosia, Cyprus
Gastroenterology/Hepatology Centre11 Kyriakou Matse, Nikis Centre, 1086 NicosiaCyprusClinical Dietician
George S Potamitis, Gastroenterology/Hepatology Centre, 11 Kyriakou Matse, Nikis Centre, 1086 Nicosia, Cyprus
Gastroenterology/Hepatology Centre,11 Kyriakou Matse, Nikis Centre, 1086 Nicosia, CyprusGastroenterologist/Hepatologist
Christina Christodoulou, Department of Molecular Virology, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, Cyprus
Department of Molecular Virology, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 6 International Airport Avenue, 2370 Nicosia, CyprusSenior Scientist
Published
2013-09-16
How to Cite
Krashias G, Bashiardes S, Potamitou A, Potamitis G, Christodoulou C (2013) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes in Cypriot patients. The Journal Of Infection In Developing Countries 7 (09): 642-650. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.2923
Section
Original Articles

Keywords

H. pylori; ureA; cagA; vacA; clarithromycin