Zero prevalence of primary drug resistance-associated mutations to protease inhibitors in HIV-1 drug-naive patients in and around Aligarh, India

  • Mohd Azam J.N.M.C., Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
  • Abida Malik J.N.M.C., Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
  • Meher Rizvi J.N.M.C., Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
  • Arvind Rai National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Sham Nath Marg, Delhi, India
Keywords: HIV, protease gene, drug resistance mutations

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of resistance mutations in the protease gene of HIV-1 strains isolated from north Indian antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naive patients and to assess the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains with known HIV-1 strains.

Methodology: Fifty-four HIV-1 strains isolated from treatment-naive patients (n = 54) were included in this study. Resistance genotyping for the protease gene was performed using semi-nested PCR and DNA sequencing. The sequences were aligned (ClustalW) and a phylogenetic tree was built (MEGA 4 software). Drug resistance (DR) pattern was analyzed using the Stanford HIV-DR database and the IAS-USA mutation list. For subtyping purposes, all the nucleotide sequences were submitted to the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool version 2.0l.

Results: All the strains (100%) were found to belong to the C subtype and to harbor at least two secondary mutations in the protease gene. The most frequent mutations were H69K and I93L (52 of 52 strains), followed by I15V (80.7%), L19I (69.2%), M36I (67.3%), R41K (94.2%), L63P (61.5%), and L89M (82.7%).

Conclusion: This study confirms that HIV-1 subtype C predominates in northern India. Protease secondary mutations associated with drug resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) were present with high frequency in the HIV-1 C subtype strains isolated from north Indian ARV treatment-naive patients, but no primary resistance mutations were found in this region. We suggest that resistance testing in HIV-1 infected patients should ideally be performed before the initiation of therapy to tailor the treatment for the individual to achieve the optimal therapeutic outcome

Author Biographies

Mohd Azam, J.N.M.C., Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Microbiology
Abida Malik, J.N.M.C., Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Microbiology
Published
2014-01-15
How to Cite
1.
Azam M, Malik A, Rizvi M, Rai A (2014) Zero prevalence of primary drug resistance-associated mutations to protease inhibitors in HIV-1 drug-naive patients in and around Aligarh, India. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:079-085. doi: 10.3855/jidc.3480
Section
Original Articles