Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection in Nigerian patients with HIV infection

  • Olanisun Olufemi Adewole Medicine Department, NHA, Abuja
  • Emmanuel Anteyi Medicine Department, NHA, Abuja
  • Zaccheus Ajuwon Medicine Department, NHA, Abuja
  • Ibrahim Wada Obstetrics and Gynecology Department,NHA, Abuja
  • Funmilayo Elegba Microbiology Department, NHA, Abuja
  • Patience Ahmed Department of Paediatrics,NHA, Abuja
  • Yewande Betiku Family Medicine Department, NHA, Abuja
  • Andy Okpe Adult HIV Clinic, NHA, Abuja
  • Stella Eze Adult HIV Clinic, NHA, Abuja
  • Tomi Ogbeche Adult HIV Clinic, NHA, Abuja
  • Greg Efosa Erhabor Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
Keywords: hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Risk factors, presentation


Introduction: We set out to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses among human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals and its impact on pattern of presentation. Methodology: A serological study for hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses was performed on 260 HIV-positive individuals. These patients were tested for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody. Results: Thirty (11.5%) patients tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, six (2.3%) tested positive for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, four (1.5%) were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus and the overall prevalence was 15.4% . Individuals younger than 40 years of age were more affected, and the odds ratio of a female being co-infected was 1.2, 25% versus 75% p value = 0.03. The prevalence of HIV and hepatitis co-infection rises with age except for hepatitis C. There was no significant difference in the mean levels of liver enzymes (AST, ALT) among the various groups. The groups differ significantly in their mean CD4 count: it was lowest for those co-infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis C; 106 cells/mm3, 171 cells/mm3 for those with HIV alone; and the highest value of 260 cells/mm3 was obtained in those who tested positive for anti-HCV. Scarification marks and multiple blood transfusions were more common among those infected. There was no case of intravenous drug abuse identified. Conclusion: This low frequency of HIV/HCV co-infection is probably due to the uncommon intravenous drug abuse in this population. Co-infection with hepatitis B virus is common among our HIV-infected patients and should be a major consideration in the initiation and choice of therapy.
How to Cite
Adewole OO, Anteyi E, Ajuwon Z, Wada I, Elegba F, Ahmed P, Betiku Y, Okpe A, Eze S, Ogbeche T, Erhabor GE (2009) Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection in Nigerian patients with HIV infection. J Infect Dev Ctries 3:369-375. doi: 10.3855/jidc.245
Original Articles