Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood donors in El Salvador between 2001 and 2011

  • Emi Sasagawa School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • Ana Vilma Guevara de Aguilar Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), San Salvador, El Salvador
  • Marta Alicia Hernández de Ramírez Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), San Salvador, El Salvador
  • José Eduardo Romero Chévez Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), San Salvador, El Salvador
  • Jun Nakagawa School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • Rafael Antonio Cedillos Universidad de El Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador
  • Chizuru Misago Tsuda College, Tokyo, Japan
  • Kiyoshi Kita School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Keywords: blood banks, Chagas disease, El Salvador, Trypanosoma cruzi, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata

Abstract

Introduction: El Salvador is regarded as a highly endemic country for Chagas disease, as evidenced by the relatively high estimated positive serology rate for Trypanosoma cruzi among blood donors. This study aimed to identify the factors contributing to this high rate by analyzing changes in T. cruzi seroprevalence.

Methodology: Secondary data were collected from 31 blood banks operated by the Ministry of Health, the Red Cross, the Institute of Salvadoran Social Security, and the Military Hospital. The data were analyzed to determine the number of cases of T. cruzi seropositivity, and the average prevalence of seropositivity by province. Simple linear regression was performed to identify trends in T. cruzi seropositivity.

Results: Analysis of the 885,187 blood samples collected between 2001 and 2011 revealed 21,693 cases of transfusion-related infections, with a significant reduction of T. cruzi seropositivity from 3.7% in 2001 to 1.7% in 2011, reflecting a 54% decrease over the course of a decade (R2 = 89.6%, p > 0.001). T. cruzi seroprevalence decreased in San Salvador, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, and Cuscatlán. In contrast, seroprevalence remained high with no decrease in Ahuachapán and San Vicente, and consistently low in the remainder of the country.

Conclusions: Although the national prevalence of T. cruzi among blood donors has decreased, it remains high in the provinces of Ahuachapán and San Vicente. Strengthening vector control activities and developing an approach for the systematic follow-up of prospective blood donors with positive serology for T. cruzi are required, especially in areas with high seropositivity.

Author Biographies

Emi Sasagawa, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Departmentof Biomedical Chemistry, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine
Ana Vilma Guevara de Aguilar, Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), San Salvador, El Salvador
Unidad de Vigilancia Laboratorial
Marta Alicia Hernández de Ramírez, Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), San Salvador, El Salvador
Unidadde Vigilancia Laboratorial
José Eduardo Romero Chévez, Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), San Salvador, El Salvador
Unidadde Vigilancia de Enfermedades Vectorizadas
Jun Nakagawa, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Departmentof International Community Health, School of International Health, GraduateSchool of Medicine
Rafael Antonio Cedillos, Universidad de El Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador
Consejode Investigaciones Científicas (CIC-UES)
Chizuru Misago, Tsuda College, Tokyo, Japan
Departmentof International and Cultural Studies
Kiyoshi Kita, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Departmentof Biomedical Chemistry, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine
Published
2014-08-13
How to Cite
1.
Sasagawa E, Guevara de Aguilar AV, Hernández de Ramírez MA, Romero Chévez JE, Nakagawa J, Cedillos RA, Misago C, Kita K (2014) Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood donors in El Salvador between 2001 and 2011. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:1029-1036. doi: 10.3855/jidc.4035
Section
Original Articles