Genetic diversity of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Saudi Arabia

  • Norah Abdulhamed Uthman King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Sayed Sartaj Sohrab King Fahd medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz university, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Ibrahim Hassan Kamal Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Suha Abdulall Farraj King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Badr Essa Masri King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmad Mohammad Ashshi Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • Taha Abdullah Kumosani Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Esam Ibraheem Azhar King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Influenza A (H1N1) virus, HA and NA genes, genetic diversity, phylogenetic analysis

Abstract

Introduction: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged and spread globally in the spring of 2009. Saudi Arabia also witnessed a severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts of the kingdom beginning in June 2009. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was detected in samples collected between May 2009 and November 2010 from Makkah region. This study provides data on the viral diagnosis and genetic diversity of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus from Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: Nasopharyngeal swabs from 100 clinically infected patients in the peak of the outbreak were collected from Makkah region and processed for viral diagnosis by viral culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HA and NA genes of 10 selected samples were sequenced and analyzed.

Results: A total of 100 samples were collected; only 10 samples were found to be positive for influenza A virus infection by real-time PCR. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the HA and NA genes of influenza A (H1N1) from Saudi Arabia showed significant similarities with selected isolates. The phylogenetic tree constructed for both HA and NA genes formed close clusters with selected reference isolates.

Conclusions: Nucleotide sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationships of the HA and NA genes of influenza A (H1N1) virus from Saudi Arabia with selected reference isolates indicates that they were genetically close and most probably originated from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

Author Biographies

Norah Abdulhamed Uthman, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
ResearcherSpecialInfectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King AbdulazizUniversity, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, King Fahd medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz university, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim Hassan Kamal, Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
ProfessorDepartmentof Biochemistry, Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SaudiArabia, Experimental Biochemistry unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, KingAbdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Suha Abdulall Farraj, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
ResearcherSpecialInfectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King AbdulazizUniversity, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Badr Essa Masri, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
ResearcherSpecialInfectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King AbdulazizUniversity, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Ahmad Mohammad Ashshi, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
ProfessorMedicalLaboratory Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-QuraUniversity, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Taha Abdullah Kumosani, Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
ProfessorDepartmentof Biochemistry, Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SaudiArabia, Experimental Biochemistry unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, KingAbdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Esam Ibraheem Azhar, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Associate ProfessorSpecialInfectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King AbdulazizUniversity
Published
2014-12-15
How to Cite
1.
Uthman NA, Sohrab SS, Kamal IH, Farraj SA, Masri BE, Ashshi AM, Kumosani TA, Azhar EI (2014) Genetic diversity of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:1563-1573. doi: 10.3855/jidc.4420
Section
Original Articles