Comparison between potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS in areas of Brazil
Introduction: Coronary heart disease and its risk factors depend on genetic characteristics, behaviors, and habits, all of which vary in different regions. The use of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) has increased the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), who begin to present mortality indicators similar to the general population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of factors potentially associated with coronary heart disease in three cohorts of PLWHA from three different regions of Brazil.
Methodology: The study population was composed of participants of the cohorts of Pernambuco, Goiás, and Rio Grande do Sul states. In these sites, adult patients attending reference centers for treatment of HIV/AIDS were consecutively enrolled.
Results: Pernambuco and Goiás had a higher proportion of males and of individuals with high-risk high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Pernambuco also had a greater proportion of individuals with hypertension, elevated triglycerides, and CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm3. Lower education was more frequent in Rio Grande do Sul, and the use of cocaine was higher in this state.
Conclusions: The results confirm the importance of risk factors for coronary heart disease in PLHIV and highlight differences in the three cohorts. Specific measures against smoking and sedentary lifestyle, avoidance of advanced stages of immunosuppression, and appropriate treatment of dyslipidemia and dysglicemia are urgently needed to cope with the disease in Brazil.
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