Multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and associated risk factors in community infants in Lebanon
Keywords:extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, Enterobacteriaceae, risk factors, infant, CTX-M-9, Lebanon
Introduction: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) infections are a growing threat to children, and the treatment of these infections becomes more and more challenging. A huge reservoir for ESBLs in the community is the fecal flora of children. This study investigates the rectal colonization, associated risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular characterization of ESBL-PE in Lebanese community infants.
Methodology: A total of 117 rectal swabs were taken from healthy infants between 1 and 12 months of age. Detection of ESBLs was carried out using the double-disk synergy test, combination-disk method, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A questionnaire about the infant’s history and risk factors for carrying ESBL-PE was administered.
Results: In total, 58 (49.6%) of 117 participants were ESBL-PE carriers. Some significant important risk factors for colonization in this study were male gender, hospital birth, caesarean delivery, and being formula-fed. Observed decrease in colonization rate was associated with intimate hygiene habits. Carriers of multiple bla genes were the most common. CTX-M type was the major harbored, gene and CTX-M-9 was the most predominant, followed by CTX-M-15 type.
Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first available data about the carriage rate of ESBL-PE in community infants in Lebanon and the Middle East, the first study showing that birth in hospital, caesarean delivery, and being formula-fed are all significantly associated risk factors for the high colonization rates in community – not hospitalized – infants, and showing the dominance of multiple resistance gene carriage and wide dissemination of CTX-M-9 ESBL.
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