Incidence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Uganda: A prospective study

  • Sarah Nakubulwa Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
  • Dan K Kaye School of medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
  • Freddie Bwanga Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
  • Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
  • Edith Nakku-Joloba Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
  • Florence M Mirembe Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
Keywords: herpes simplex virus type 2, incidence, seroconversion, pregnancy, risk factors

Abstract

Introduction: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda.

Methodology: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014. HSV-2 serostatus was determined using HerpeSelect HSV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics and sexual history. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus was obtained from antenatal records. A total of 191 women completed follow-up and repeat HSV-2 serology by 38 weeks. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to estimate risk ratios for risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion.

Results: Of 191 women, 15 (7.9%) seroconverted during pregnancy. Having multiple sexual partners, being in polygamous unions, and having HIV-positive serostatus were found to be risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion.

Conclusions: The incidence of HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda was high. Multiple sexual partners, polygamy, and HIV-positive serostatus were risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy. Strengthening health education on the avoidance of multiple sexual partners during pregnancy is paramount in prevention of HSV-2 seroconversion.

Author Biographies

Sarah Nakubulwa, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Lecturer

Dan K Kaye, School of medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Associate Professor

Freddie Bwanga, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda

Department of Microbiology

Lecturer

Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda

School of Public Health

Associate Professor

Edith Nakku-Joloba, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda

School of Public Health

Senior Lecturer

Florence M Mirembe, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Associate Professor

Published
2016-10-31
How to Cite
1.
Nakubulwa S, Kaye DK, Bwanga F, Tumwesigye NM, Nakku-Joloba E, Mirembe FM (2016) Incidence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Uganda: A prospective study. J Infect Dev Ctries 10:1108-1115. doi: 10.3855/jidc.6874
Section
Original Articles