Secondary antifungal prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with invasive fungal infection

  • Mehmet S Pepeler Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Şeyma Yildiz Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Zeynep A Yegin Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Zübeyde N Özkurt Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Özlem G Tunçcan Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Gonca Erbaş Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Nurdan Köktürk Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Ayşe Kalkanci Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Zeki Yildirim, Professor Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
Keywords: invasive fungal infection, antifungal prophylaxis, voriconazole, amphotericin B


Introduction: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. A previous history of IFI is not an absolute contraindication for allo-HSCT, particularly in the era of secondary antifungal prophylaxis (SAP). Prompt diagnosis and therapy are essential for HSCT outcome.

Methodology: The charts of 58 allo-HSCT recipients [median age:29.5 (16-62); M/F:41/17] who had a previous history of IFI were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Possible IFI was demonstrated in 32 (55.2%), probable in 13 (22.4%) and proven in 13 patients (22.4%). All patients received SAP [liposomal amphoterisin B (n ꞊ 35), voriconazole (n ꞊ 17), caspofungin (n ꞊ 2), posaconazole (n ꞊ 1), combination therapy (n = 3)] which was started on the first day of the conditioning regimen. Treatment success was better in the voriconazole group when compared to the amphotericin B arm (100% vs 69.2%; p = 0.029). Development of breakthrough IFI was more frequent in patients on amphotericin B prophylaxis (42.4% vs 23.1%; p = 0.036). Clinical and radiological response were achieved in 13 of 18 patients (72.2%) who developed breakthrough infection. Overall survival of the study population was 13.5% at a median follow-up of 154 (7-3285) days. Fungal mortality was found to be 23%. Overall survival was better in the voriconazole arm, without statistical significance (90% vs 65.8%, p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Secondary antifungal prophylaxis is considered to be an indispensible strategy in patients with pre-HSCT IFI history. Voriconazole seems to be a relatively better alternative despite an underlying necessity of larger prospective trials.

How to Cite
Pepeler MS, Yildiz Şeyma, Yegin ZA, Özkurt ZN, Tunçcan Özlem G, Erbaş G, Köktürk N, Kalkanci A, Yildirim Z (2018) Secondary antifungal prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with invasive fungal infection. J Infect Dev Ctries 12:799-805. doi: 10.3855/jidc.9961
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