Is genital tract infection related to tubal diseases in infertile Vietnamese women?
Keywords:genital tract infection, infertility, Vietnam, tubal diseases
Introduction: The goal of this study was to identify the profile of genital tract infections and their relationship with clinical and demographic parameters as well as tubal diseases among infertile women in Vietnam.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we enrolled 597 women undergoing infertility treatment at the Center for Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, Hue University Hospital, Vietnam. All of the study participants were interviewed and examined by a gynecologist. Consecutive tests were then conducted including direct microscopy examination (wet mount and Gram stain), vaginal culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for chlamydia diagnosis from a cervical canal swab, and a blood test for syphilis detection. A hysterosalpingogram (HSG) was carried out to examine the uterine cavity and Fallopian tubes.
Results: A gynecologic infection was diagnosed in 43.4% (259/597) of the infertile women. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common condition at 19.6%of the cases. Candida spp., Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections accounted for 17.4%, 3.7%, and 0.3%, respectively. Normal HSG results accounted for 87.4% of the women while 5.5% had 2-sided tubal occlusions, 5.4% had 1-sided tubal occlusions, 1.0% had 1-sided hydrosalpinx, and 0.7% had 2-sided hydrosalpinx. There was no significant association between tubal diseases and current infections; however, aerobic vaginitis increased the risk of tubal diseases by 2.4 times.
Conclusions: A marked proportion of infertile Vietnamese women have genital tract infections that can significantly influence their reproductive function and performance. These infections should be routinely screened and treated properly to prevent their consequences, such as infertility, which is especially important in developing countries.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).