Renal echinococcosis; the parasite, host immune response, diagnosis and management
Renal echinococcosis is a rare parasite-caused disease of humans and animals; it makes up about 4% of confirmed cases of cystic echinococcosis. It is a zoonotic disease that occurs in the intermediate hosts harboring the larval stage, the hydatid cyst, of Echinococcus spp. The renal involvement is often asymptomatic or with unspecific signs. Its diagnosis is mostly based on imaging technique. Immunodiagnostic tests are not applicable. Furthermore, because the disease is not common, our knowledge about its different aspects is scarce. In this review, the parasite, host immune response, diagnosis, and management of renal echinococcosis are described.
Copyright (c) 2020 Hossein Yousofi Darani, Rasool Jafari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).