β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from imported and locally-produced chicken in Mozambique

  • Sara Lino Faife Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • Tomas Zimba Department of Internal Medicine and Laboratory of Microbiology, Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo, Mozambique
  • John Osei Sekyere Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • Usha Govinden Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • Hafizah Yusuf Chenia Discipline of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • Gunnar Skov Simonsen Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norwegian Arctic University, and Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway
  • Arnfinn Sundsfjord Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norwegian Arctic University, and Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway
  • Sabiha Yusuf Essack Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3357-2761
Keywords: antibiotic resistance, ESBL, pAmpC, CTX-M, Enterobacteriaceae, chicken

Abstract

Introduction: Plasmid-mediated resistance to β-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was investigated in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retailed frozen chickens from Brazil, South Africa and Mozambique.

Methodology: Carcass swabs and the liquid thaw of 33 chickens from each of the three countries constituted the total sample size of 198. Isolates were identified by biochemical tests, antibiotic susceptibility was ascertained by the disc diffusion assay and β-lactamases were detected using the double-disk synergy test. PCR was used to detect the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCMY, blaMOX, blaFOX, blaDHA, qnrB, qnrD, qnrS and qepA genes. A random selection of CTX-M genes was sequenced.

Results: The 198 samples yielded 27 (13.6%) putative extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates, 15 from carcass swabs and 12 from the liquid thaw from 22 chickens with 19, 5 and 3 isolates from South African, Mozambican and Brazilian chicken, respectively. Isolates exhibited the following resistance: ampicillin 100%, ceftriaxone 89%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 78%, cefotaxime 74%, ciprofloxacin 70%, ceftazidime 67%, cefoxitin 22% and gentamicin 8%. The predominant putative ESBL gene was blaSHV (85%), followed by blaCTX-M (62.9%) and blaTEM (44.4%) whilst blaMOX and blaDHA were the most common pAmpC genes at 33.3%. The predominant plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone-resistance gene was qepA (22.2%). DNA sequencing identified blaCTX-M-55/-79/-101/-164. ERIC–PCR profiles did not show strong evidence of clonality.

Conclusion: The Mozambican population is exposed to a reservoir of plasmid-mediated, and hence mobile β-lactam and quinolone resistance genes via imported, and to a lesser extent, locally produced poultry. This presents a food safety concern.

Published
2020-05-31
How to Cite
1.
Faife SL, Zimba T, Sekyere JO, Govinden U, Chenia HY, Simonsen GS, Sundsfjord A, Essack SY (2020) β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from imported and locally-produced chicken in Mozambique. J Infect Dev Ctries 14:471-478. doi: 10.3855/jidc.10924
Section
Original Articles