Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review
Keywords:Toxoplasmosis, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Saudi Arabia
Introduction: The causative agent of toxoplasmosis is Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii); an intracellular obligate parasite causes abortion in humans and animals. The review aims to clarify the situation of the disease in humans and animals in different parts of the country so that data will be available for any future work regarding the control of the disease.
Methodology: All humans and animal research studies published in the last 18 years between 2000 and 2018 in Saudi Arabia were targeted, including prevalence or seroprevalence of T. gondii infection or antibodies. The searched strategy included human or pregnant women or children as well as animals or any particular species.
Results: The result showed that approximately one-third of the population in Saudi Arabia had IgG seropositivity, and 6.4% had IgM seropositivity. Moreover, the disease was widespread in almost all the regions except AL- Jouf, where no data published. The prevalence of the chronic infection was high in sheep in Riyadh 68%, and the prevalence of acute was found in Najran 19% in sheep, goats, and camels.
Conclusions: The current article showed the importance of the disease in Saudi Arabia for both humans and animals. The educational programs should be established to impart people to avoid the infection by the parasite.
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