Benefits of fecal microbiota transplantation: A comprehensive review
A growing body of literatures showed the interaction of dysbiotic gut with a wide range of disorders, and the clinical use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) shifted from infectious disease to non-communicable disorders. Despite the promising therapeutic benefits of FMT, the exact mechanisms through which fecal recipients benefit from the fecal intervention are not well understood. However, owing to the advantages of having a healthy gut microbiome, possible mechanisms of actions of FMT has been described. On the one hand, through direct ecological competition, FMT may potentially stimulate decolonization of pathogenic microorganisms and increase host resistance to pathogens. Moreover, following dysbiosis, abnormal microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract may also cause excessive or dysregulated immune response, resulting in chronic inflammation and the development of mucosal lesions. In this regard, repopulating gut microbiome through FMT helps to restore immune function and reduce host damage. On the other hand, FMT helps to restore essential metabolites used for host metabolism, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), antimicrobial peptides (AMP), bacteriocins and bile acids. Therefore, in this review, the existing evidences regarding the mechanisms of action, current opportunities and challenges of FMT will be described.
Copyright (c) 2020 Muluneh Ademe
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