Virus sensing receptors in cellular infectivity of influenza A virus
An innate immune response is essential to mobilize protective immunity upon the infection of respiratory epithelial cells with influenza A virus (IAV). The response is classified as early (nonspecific effectors), local systematic (effector cells recruitment) and late (antigen to lymphoid organ transport, naive B and T cells recognition, effector cells clonal expansion and differentiation). Virus particles are detected by the host cells as non-self by various sensors that are present on the cell surface, endosomes and cytosol. These sensors are collectively termed as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The PRRs distinguish unique molecular signatures known as pathogen-associated molecular pattern, which are present either on the cell surface or within intracellular compartments. PRRs have been classified into five major groups: C-Type Lectin Receptor (CLR), Toll-like receptor (TLR), Nod-like receptor (NLR), Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptor (RLR), which play a role in innate immunity to IAV infection, and the pyrin and hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear (PYHIN) domain protein. Here, we discuss the role of PRRs in cellular infectivity of IAV and highlight the recent progress.
Copyright (c) 2021 Shaihana Almatrrouk, Iram Saba, Suhair Abozaid, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).