Does Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor predict the prognosis of COVID-19 disease?

  • Hamad Dheir Division of Nephrology, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Selcuk Yaylaci Department of Internal Medicine, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Savas Sipahi Division of Nephrology, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Ahmed Cihad Genc Department of Internal Medicine, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Deniz Cekic Department of Internal Medicine, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Fatma Betul Tuncer Department of Biochemistry, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Erdem Cokluk Department of Biochemistry, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Havva Kocayigit Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Ahmed Bilal Genc Department of Internal Medicine, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Salih Salihi Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Ceyhun Varim Department of Internal Medicine, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Oguz Karabay Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-Cov-2, Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, Inflammation

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate whether macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) predicts the prognosis of COVID-19 disease.

Methodology: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 87 confirmed COVID-19 patients. The patients were separated into two groups according to the admission in the ICU or in the ward. MIF was determined batchwise in plasma obtained as soon as the patients were admitted. Both groups were compared with respect to demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters and prediction of requirement to ICU admission.

Results: Forty seven patients in ICU, and 40 patients in ward were included. With respect to MIF levels and biochemical biomarkers, there was a statistically significant difference between the ICU and ward patients (p< 0.024). In terms of ICU requirement, the cut-off value of MIF was detected as 4.705 (AUC:0.633, 95%CI:0.561-0.79, p= 0.037), D-dimer was 789 (AUC:0.779, 95%CI: 0.681-0.877, p= 0.000), troponin was 8.15 (AUC: 0.820, 95%CI:0.729-0.911, p= 0.000), ferritin was 375 (AUC: 0.774, 95%CI:0.671-0.876, p= 0.000), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 359.5 (AUC:0.843, 95%CI: 0.753-0.933, p= 0.000). According to the logistic regression analysis; when MIF level > 4.705, the patient’s requirement to ICU risk was increased to 8.33 (95%CI: 1.73-44.26, p= 0.009) fold. Similarly, elevation of troponin, ferritin and, LDH was shown to predict disease prognosis (p< 0.05).

Conclusions: Our study showed that MIF may play a role in inflammatory responses to COVID-19 through induction of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that pharmacotherapeutic approaches targeting MIF may hold promise for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Published
2021-03-31
How to Cite
1.
Dheir H, Yaylaci S, Sipahi S, Genc AC, Cekic D, Tuncer FB, Cokluk E, Kocayigit H, Genc AB, Salihi S, Varim C, Karabay O (2021) Does Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor predict the prognosis of COVID-19 disease?. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:398-403. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14009
Section
Coronavirus Pandemic