Leptospirosis as a neglected burden at human-cattle interface in Mid-Delta of Egypt

  • Yamen Hegazy Animal Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
  • Walid Elmonir Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (Zoonoses) Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
  • Atef Fatehy Orieby Animal Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
  • Ibrahim E Eldesoukey Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt
  • Maryan Fransis Animal Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
  • Magdy H Al-Gaabary Animal Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
Keywords: Leptospirosis, cattle, humans, risk factors, Egypt

Abstract

Introduction: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis in developing countries including Egypt where its burden is underestimated.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection among cows and leptospirosis among human patients in Mid-Delta of Egypt.

Results: Out of 112 examined cows using ELISA, 3.6% were seropositive to L. interrogans serovar Hardjo infection. Seroconversion occurred in 5 animals (1 herd) of all examined animals in convalescent phase testing (5/112, 4.5%). Affected herd suffered acute outbreak with 43.3% within herd prevalence; signs of infection included abortions, bloody urine and sudden death of 2 cows. Highest risk for L. interrogans serovar Hardjo infection in cows was in animals drank from untreated surface water (6.7 times, p = 0.06). The seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 6.2% in all tested humans, 28.6% in nonspecific fever cases and 22.2% in non-viral hepatitis cases. The risk of leptospirosis among patients with nonspecific fever or non-viral hepatitis cases was 4 times higher than those with viral hepatitis (p = 0.01). Additionally, there was a significant association between leptospirosis and patients with livestock contact (Odds 8, p = 0.01).

Conclusions: This is the first report of L. interrogans serovar Hardjo outbreak in cows in Egypt. The study also highlighted the role of leptospirosis as neglected cause of nonspecific fever/non-viral hepatitis in humans in study region.

Published
2021-05-31
How to Cite
1.
Hegazy Y, Elmonir W, Orieby AF, Eldesoukey IE, Fransis M, Al-Gaabary MH (2021) Leptospirosis as a neglected burden at human-cattle interface in Mid-Delta of Egypt. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:704-709. doi: 10.3855/jidc.13231
Section
Original Articles