Leptospirosis as a neglected burden at human-cattle interface in Mid-Delta of Egypt
Introduction: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis in developing countries including Egypt where its burden is underestimated.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo infection among cows and leptospirosis among human patients in Mid-Delta of Egypt.
Results: Out of 112 examined cows using ELISA, 3.6% were seropositive to L. interrogans serovar Hardjo infection. Seroconversion occurred in 5 animals (1 herd) of all examined animals in convalescent phase testing (5/112, 4.5%). Affected herd suffered acute outbreak with 43.3% within herd prevalence; signs of infection included abortions, bloody urine and sudden death of 2 cows. Highest risk for L. interrogans serovar Hardjo infection in cows was in animals drank from untreated surface water (6.7 times, p = 0.06). The seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 6.2% in all tested humans, 28.6% in nonspecific fever cases and 22.2% in non-viral hepatitis cases. The risk of leptospirosis among patients with nonspecific fever or non-viral hepatitis cases was 4 times higher than those with viral hepatitis (p = 0.01). Additionally, there was a significant association between leptospirosis and patients with livestock contact (Odds 8, p = 0.01).
Conclusions: This is the first report of L. interrogans serovar Hardjo outbreak in cows in Egypt. The study also highlighted the role of leptospirosis as neglected cause of nonspecific fever/non-viral hepatitis in humans in study region.
Copyright (c) 2021 Yamen Hegazy, Walid Elmonir, Atef Fatehy Orieby, Ibrahim Elsayed Desooky, Maryan Fransis, Magdy Hasanin Al-Gaabary
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