Molecular epidemiology of Microsporidia among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the Limpopo province, South Africa

  • Amidou Samie Molecular Parasitology and opportunistic infections program, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo, South Africa
  • Rhulani Patricia Maluleke Molecular Parasitology and opportunistic infections program, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo, South Africa
  • Nicoline Tanih Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The Gambia
  • Ali ElBakri Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Keywords: HIV, Microsporidia, Diarrheal, Venda

Abstract

Introduction: Human microsporidiosis represents an important and rapidly emerging opportunistic disease. The present study investigated the prevalence of microsporidia among HIV positive and HIV negative patients with or without diarrhoea in Vhembe and Mopani Districts in the Limpopo Province.

Methodology: A total of 170 stool samples were collected from these patients and microsporidia species was detected using a Real-Time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

Results: Fifty six (32.9%) were positive for microsporidia. The prevalence was higher in HIV negative patients (36.6%) while 24.1% of patients who were HIV positive had microsporidia. Microsporidia was more common among patients aged between 1 and 10 years (52.6%). However among the HIV positive patients, microsporidia prevalence was higher among those that were not taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) compared to those who were on ARVs, (36.6%) and (24.1%), respectively. Microsporidia was also noted to be significantly associated with diarrheal and stomach pains; p = 0.02 and p = 0.048, respectively. Furthermore, microsporidia infections was more prevalent among patients who had animals at home (p = 0.037).

Conclusions: Study has shown a high prevalence of microsporidia among patients attending primary health centers in the Mopani District for the first time. Prevalence of microsporidia was higher among HIV negative and HIV positive patients who were not on ARV treatment. Keeping animals in the household appeared to be a risk of getting infected with microsporidia. Further studies are needed to determine the genetic characteristics of these organisms in the study population.

Author Biography

Ali ElBakri, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Lecturer

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences

 

 

 

Published
2021-05-31
How to Cite
1.
Samie A, Maluleke RP, Tanih N, ElBakri A (2021) Molecular epidemiology of Microsporidia among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the Limpopo province, South Africa. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:710-718. doi: 10.3855/jidc.12988
Section
Original Articles