Carbapenem and colistin-resistant bacteria in North Lebanon: Coexistence of mcr-1 and NDM-4 genes in Escherichia coli
Introduction: The increasing incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria is considered a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate this resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients hospitalized in North-Lebanon.
Methodology: All isolates were identified using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was achieved using disk diffusion, E-test and Broth microdilution methods. Phenotypic detection of carbapenemase was carried out using the CarbaNP test. RT-PCR, standard-PCR and sequencing were performed to detect resistance genes and oprD gene. Conjugal transfer was carried out between our isolates and Escherichia coli J53 to detect the genetic localization of resistance genes. MLST was conducted to determine the genotype of each isolate.
Results: Twenty-three carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales of which eight colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, and Twenty carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. All isolates showed an imipenem MIC greater than 32 mg/mL with MICs for colistin greater than 2 mg/L for E. coli isolates. All the Enterobacterales isolates had at least one carbapenemase-encoding gene, with E. coli isolates coharboring blaNDM-4 and mcr-1 genes. Moreover, 16/20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbored the blaVIM-2 gene and 18/20 had mutations in the oprD gene. MLST revealed that the isolates belonged to several clones.
Conclusions: We report here the first description in the world of clinical E. coli isolates coharboring blaNDM-4 and mcr-1 genes, and K. pneumoniae isolates producing NDM-6 and OXA-48 carbapenemases. Also, we describe the emergence of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae in Lebanon. Screening for these isolates is necessary to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms in hospitals.
Copyright (c) 2021 Charbel Al-Bayssari, Tania Nawfal-Dagher, Samar El Hamoui, Fadi Fenianos, Nehman Makdissy, Jean-Marc Rolain, Nadine Nasreddine
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