Knowledge, attitudes, and practices for the use of seasonal influenza vaccination, healthcare workers, Costa Rica

  • Zachary Madewell Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
  • Rafael Chacón-Fuentes Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
  • Xiomara Badilla-Vargas Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica
  • Catalina Ramirez Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica
  • Maria-Renee Ortiz Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
  • Juan-Pablo Alvis-Estrada Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
  • Jorge Jara Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Keywords: Central America, immunization, vaccination coverage, health personnel, influenza vaccines

Abstract

Introduction: Annual seasonal influenza vaccination in healthcare workers prevents nosocomial transmission to patients, coworkers, and visitors, and reduces absenteeism. This study aimed to describe knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of seasonal influenza vaccine among public healthcare workers attending patients in Costa Rica.

Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare personnel attending patients in public hospitals in 2017–2018. Frequency distributions of demographics, vaccination KAP, sources of information, clinical manifestations and reasons for non-vaccination were reported. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between exposures of interest (demographics, sources of information, knowledge, attitudes towards vaccination) and self-reported influenza vaccination.

Results: We surveyed 747 healthcare workers in 2017–2018. Of 706 participants who knew their vaccination status, 55.7% were vaccinated for seasonal influenza. Only 20.7% of participants knew the influenza vaccine was an inactivated virus, and 94.6% believed the vaccine causes flu-like symptoms. Factors associated with current influenza vaccination were vaccination in previous year (aOR: 8.13; 95% CI: 5.65–11.71) and believed influenza vaccination may be harmful (aOR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89). Reasons for non-vaccination included fear of adverse effects and access limitations.

Conclusions: Suboptimal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers may be attributed to misconceptions about the vaccine and limited engagement strategies focusing on healthcare workers. Appropriate interventions are needed to increase healthcare worker vaccination rates and improve their knowledge and beneficence, which would improve patient safety in hospitals.

Published
2021-07-31
How to Cite
1.
Madewell Z, Chacón-Fuentes R, Badilla-Vargas X, Ramirez C, Ortiz M-R, Alvis-Estrada J-P, Jara J (2021) Knowledge, attitudes, and practices for the use of seasonal influenza vaccination, healthcare workers, Costa Rica. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1004-1013. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14381
Section
Original Articles