Risk factors for poor outcome of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Albania

  • Ergys Ramosaço Infectious Disease Clinic, University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”, Tirana, Albania
  • Entela Kolovani Infectious Disease Clinic, University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”, Tirana, Albania
  • Najada Çomo Infectious Disease Clinic, University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”, Tirana, Albania
  • Nevila Gjermeni Infectious Disease Clinic, University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”, Tirana, Albania
  • Vjollca Shpata Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Technical Sciences, University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania
  • Dhimiter Kraja Infectious Disease Clinic, University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”, Tirana, Albania
Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, outcome, mortality, risk factors, complication, length of hospital stay

Abstract

Introduction: The study aims to identify potential risk factors for the poor outcome of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Albania.

Methodology: A retrospective observational study on 133 consecutive hospitalized patients at “COVID 1” Hospital, University Hospital Center of Tirana. The study analyzed the correlation between potential risk factors and in-hospital mortality.

Results: The study included 133 patients, 65.4% of the patients were male, age 60.46 ± 13.53 years. The mortality rate resulted in 22.6%. Univariate analysis revealed that early risk factors for mortality included: laboratory alterations on admission, such as lymphocytes count < 1.000/mm3 (OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.17-9.33), lactate dehydrogenase > 250 U/L (OR = 12.48, 95% CI = 1.62-95.78) and D dimer > 2 mg/L (OR = 4.72, 95% CI = 1.96-11.36); lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission (OR = 54.00, 95% CI = 11.89 – 245.11). Cox proportional hazard regression showed that independent risk factors for mortality were lung parenchymal involvement > 75% on chest computed tomography (HR = 8.31, 95%CI: 1.62-42.45) and occurrence of complications during hospital stay (OR = 10.28, 95% CI = 2.02-52.33).

Conclusions: The risk of poor outcome can be predicted from the early stage of COVID 19 disease, using laboratory data and chest computed tomography. Among patients with COVID 19, lung parenchymal involvement and alterations > 75% on chest computed tomography on admission and laboratory findings, such as lymphocytopenia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and D dimer levels, turned out to be early risk factors for in-hospital mortality.

Published
2021-09-30
How to Cite
1.
RamosaçoE, Kolovani E, Çomo N, GjermeniN, Shpata V, Kraja D (2021) Risk factors for poor outcome of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Albania. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1236-1243. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14592
Section
Coronavirus Pandemic