Immunogenicity and potential protection of DNA vaccine of Leishmania martiniquensis against Leishmania infection in mice

  • Thuntawat Aunguldee Biomedical Science Program, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Orapin Gerdprasert Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Piyatida Tangteerawatana Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Amporn Jariyapongskul Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Saovanee Leelayoova Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Benjamas Thanomsub Wongsatayanon Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
Keywords: Leishmania, Leishmaniasis, Leishmania vaccine, DNA vaccine, Cysteine protease, immunization

Abstract

Introduction: In Thailand, Leishmania martiniquensis is the predominant species causing cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Its incidence has been increasing among immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We developed a prototype DNA vaccine using a partial consensus sequence of the cysteine protease B (cpb) gene derived from L. martiniquensis from Thai patients.

Methodology: The laboratory inbred strain of albino BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2-week intervals (weeks 0, 2, and 4) with cpb plasmid DNA (pcDNA_cpb) with or without the adjuvant, monoolein (pcDNA_cpb-MO). Mice were challenged at week 6 with L. martiniquensis promastigotes. Sera were analysed for IgG1, IgG2a, interferon gamma and interleukin 10 (IFN-γ and IL-10, respectively) levels at weeks 0, 4, and 9. Additionally, livers and spleens were also analysed for parasite burden using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain (qPCR) assays.

Results: Three weeks after promastigote challenge, vaccinated mice showed significantly increased levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ while IL-10 level was significantly reduced when compared with those in the control group (p < 0.01). Parasite burden in the livers and spleens of vaccinated mice significantly decreased. In addition, a significant increase in mature granuloma formation in the livers when compared with those of the control group (p < 0.05) was found, indicating increased T-helper cells (Th1)-induced inflammation and destruction of amastigotes. Monoolein produced a booster effect to enhance the mouse Th1 protective immunity.

Conclusions: The prototype DNA vaccine could induce a Th1 immune response that conferred potential protection to the L. martiniquensis promastigote challenge in BALB/c mice.

Published
2021-09-30
How to Cite
1.
AunguldeeT, GerdprasertO, TangteerawatanaP, JariyapongskulA, LeelayoovaS, Wongsatayanon BT (2021) Immunogenicity and potential protection of DNA vaccine of Leishmania martiniquensis against Leishmania infection in mice. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1328-1338. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14472
Section
Original Articles