Modifiable risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in non-intensive care unit versus intensive care unit

  • Patpong Udompat Department of Social Medicine, Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi, Thailand
  • Daravan Rongmuang Department of Adult and Elderly Nursing, Prapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi, Thailand
  • Ronald Craig Hershow Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, the University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
Keywords: Ventilator associated pneumonia, Case-control studies, Risk factors, Intensive care units


Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia patients are treated in non-intensive care units because of a shortage of intensive care unit beds in Thailand. Our objective was to assess whether the type of unit and medications prescribed to the patient were associated with ventilator‑associated pneumonia and multidrug resistant ventilator‑associated pneumonia.

Methodology: A matched case-control study nested in a prospective cohort of mechanical ventilation adult patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit and five non-intensive care units from March 1 through October 31, 2013. The controls were randomly selected 1:1 with cases and matched based on duration and start date of mechanical ventilation.

Results: 248 ventilator-associated pneumonia and control patients were analyzed. The most common bacteria were multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (82.4%). Compared with patients in the intensive care unit, those in the neurosurgical/surgical non-intensive care units were at higher risk (p = 0.278). Proton pump inhibitor was a risk factor (p = 0.011), but antibiotic was a protective factor (p = 0.054). Broad spectrum antibiotic was a risk factor (p < 0.001) for multidrug resistant ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Conclusions: Post-surgical and neurosurgical patients treated in non-intensive care unit settings were at the highest risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Our findings suggest that alternative using proton pump inhibitors should be considered based on the risk-benefit of using this medication. In addition, careful stewardship of antibiotic use should be warranted to prevent multidrug resistant ventilator-associated pneumonia.


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How to Cite
Udompat P, RongmuangD, Hershow RC (2021) Modifiable risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in non-intensive care unit versus intensive care unit. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1471-1480. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14190
Original Articles