Postnatal ocular toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients
Introduction: Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of infectious posterior uveitis worldwide. It can be prenatal or postnatal in origin. Despite estimations that postnatal ocular toxoplasmosis is more prevalent, only several cases of proven postnatal ocular toxoplasmosis have been reported in non-epidemic settings. Here, the clinical evolution of ocular toxoplasmosis of conclusively proven postnatal origin in immunocompetent patients is reported.
Methodology: Postnatal ocular toxoplasmosis was diagnosed based on clinical diagnosis supported by the longitudinal detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies in the serum as well as by direct detection of the parasite (bioassay) and/or its DNA (real-time PCR) in aqueous humor.
Results: Three cases involved adults in whom ocular toxoplasmosis developed during primary T. gondii infection, as part of the clinical presentation in two and as the sole manifestation in one patient. The fourth patient was a case of inactive ocular toxoplasmosis in a 14-year-old boy, where postnatal infection was confirmed by exclusion of maternal infection. The causative parasite strain was genotyped in only one case and it belonged to genotype II, the dominant type in Europe. One patient acquired the infection in Africa, suggesting an atypical strain.
Conclusions: The distinction between prenatal and postnatal ocular toxoplasmosis is only possible in particular clinical situations, and requires extensive laboratory investigation. Genotyping of the parasite strain involved may be important, particularly if atypical strains are suspected, requiring tailored treatment approaches.
Copyright (c) 2021 Olivera Lijeskić, Tijana Štajner, Jelena Srbljanović, Aleksandra Radosavljević, Branko Bobić, Ivana Klun, Anka Stanojević-Paović, Olgica Djurković-Djaković
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