Evaluating vertical transmission of sexually transmitted infections to newborns

  • Dinamene Oliveira Huíla Health Centre, Girassol Clinic, Lubango, Huíla, Angola
  • João Piedade Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, NOVA University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Rita Castro Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, NOVA University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Ângela Lopes Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, NOVA University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Maria do Rosário Martins Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, NOVA University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Filomena Pereira Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, NOVA University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Keywords: vertical transmission, HBV, HIV-1, Treponema pallidum, newborns, Angola

Abstract

Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections are among the most frequent infections affecting pregnant women. We assessed the transmission of hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Treponema pallidum to newborns from infected parturients.

Methodology: An observational, cross-sectional, analytical facility-based survey was conducted among 57 newborns in Irene Neto Maternity, Lubango city, Huíla province, Angola. Hepatitis B virus DNA molecular identification was done through nested PCR. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral DNA detection was carried out by two successive nested PCRs. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the presence of T. pallidum DNA. Amplicons from PCR positive samples were sequenced for identity search and genotype assignment.

Results: Hepatitis B virus DNA genotype E was detected in 3/41 (7.3%) newborns from HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) positive mothers. To analyse the association between mothers HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen) positivity and hepatitis B virus vertical transmission to newborns, a Fisher's exact test was performed, showing a highly significant association (p = 0.006). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus or T. pallidum DNA was not detected in any newborn.

Conclusions: To prevent hepatitis B virus vertical transmission in Angola it is important to promote universal antenatal screening, expanding hepatitis B virus markers (viral load and/or HBeAg), risk-based infected mothers’ antiviral therapy and newborn passive immunoprophylaxis.

Published
2021-10-31
How to Cite
1.
Oliveira D, Piedade J, Castro R, Lopes Ângela, Martins M do R, Pereira F (2021) Evaluating vertical transmission of sexually transmitted infections to newborns. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1547-1550. doi: 10.3855/jidc.12731
Section
Brief Original Articles