Synergistic antibacterial activity of herbal extracts with antibiotics on bacteria responsible for periodontitis
Introduction: Development of bacterial resistance and antimicrobial side-effect has shifted the focus of research toward Ethnopharmacology. A biologically active compound derived from the plants may increase the effectiveness of antibiotic when used in combination. The present study aims to determine the synergistic antibacterial effect of ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum (pericarp), Commiphora molmol, Azadirachta indica (bark) in combination with amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, and azithromycin on periodontopathic bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
Methodology: Periodontopathic bacterial strains were isolated from the plaque sample that was collected from periodontitis patients and grown under favorable conditions. Susceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotics and extracts was determined by disc diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts were evaluated against each bacterium. Synergistic effect of plant extract in combination with antibiotics was tested against each bacterium by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition (ZOI).
Results: Findings revealed that all plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effects on the proliferation and growth of periodontopathic bacteria. The maximum antibacterial effect was exhibited by C. molmol on P. gingivalis (ZOI = 20 ± 0.55 mm, MIC = 0.53 ± 0.24 mg/mL and MBC = 5.21 ± 1.81 mg/mL) (p < 0.05), meanwhile, no antibacterial activity was exhibited by P. granatum on T. forsythia. Synergistic antibacterial effect was recorded when plant extracts were used in combination with antibiotics. The best synergism was exhibited by P. granatum with amoxicillin against A. actinomycetemcomitans (24 ± 1.00 mm) (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: The synergistic test showed significant antibacterial activity when plant extracts were combined with antibiotics against all the experimented bacteria.
Copyright (c) 2021 Shahabe Abullais Saquib, Nabeeh Abdullah AlQahtani, Irfan Ahmad, Suraj Arora, Shaik Mohammed Asif, Mukhatar Ahmed Javali , Nazima Nisar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).