Synergistic antibacterial activity of herbal extracts with antibiotics on bacteria responsible for periodontitis

  • Shahabe Abullais Saquib Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Nabeeh Abdullah AlQahtani Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Irfan Ahmad Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Suraj Arora Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Shaik Mohammed Asif Department of Diagnostic Science and Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Mukhatar Ahmed Javali Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Nazima Nisar Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Antibacterial activity, antibiotic, periodontopathic bacteria, plant extract, synergism

Abstract

Introduction: Development of bacterial resistance and antimicrobial side-effect has shifted the focus of research toward Ethnopharmacology. A biologically active compound derived from the plants may increase the effectiveness of antibiotic when used in combination. The present study aims to determine the synergistic antibacterial effect of ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum (pericarp), Commiphora molmol, Azadirachta indica (bark) in combination with amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, and azithromycin on periodontopathic bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

Methodology: Periodontopathic bacterial strains were isolated from the plaque sample that was collected from periodontitis patients and grown under favorable conditions. Susceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotics and extracts was determined by disc diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts were evaluated against each bacterium. Synergistic effect of plant extract in combination with antibiotics was tested against each bacterium by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition (ZOI).

Results: Findings revealed that all plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effects on the proliferation and growth of periodontopathic bacteria. The maximum antibacterial effect was exhibited by C. molmol on P. gingivalis (ZOI = 20 ± 0.55 mm, MIC = 0.53 ± 0.24 mg/mL and MBC = 5.21 ± 1.81 mg/mL) (p < 0.05), meanwhile, no antibacterial activity was exhibited by P. granatum on T. forsythia. Synergistic antibacterial effect was recorded when plant extracts were used in combination with antibiotics. The best synergism was exhibited by P. granatum with amoxicillin against A. actinomycetemcomitans (24 ± 1.00 mm) (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The synergistic test showed significant antibacterial activity when plant extracts were combined with antibiotics against all the experimented bacteria.

Author Biographies

Shahabe Abullais Saquib, Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Assistant professor, Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences

Nabeeh Abdullah AlQahtani, Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Associate professor, Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences

Irfan Ahmad, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Assistant professor, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Suraj Arora, Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Assistant professor, Department of Restorative Dental Sciences

Shaik Mohammed Asif, Department of Diagnostic Science and Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Assistant professor, Department of Diagnostic Science and Oral Biology

Mukhatar Ahmed Javali , Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Associate professor, Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences

Nazima Nisar, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Assistant professor, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Published
2021-11-30
How to Cite
1.
Abullais SaquibS, Abdullah AlQahtaniN, AhmadI, AroraS, Mohammed AsifS, Ahmed Javali M, NisarN (2021) Synergistic antibacterial activity of herbal extracts with antibiotics on bacteria responsible for periodontitis. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1685-1693. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14904
Section
Original Articles