Initial Clinical Characteristics of 146 Patients with COVID-19 Reported in Guizhou Province, China: A Survival Analysis
Keywords:COVID-19, survival analysis, clinical characteristic, epidemiological characteristics
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an outbreak around the world. Early detection of severe illness is crucial for patients’ survival. We analysed initial clinical characteristics of 146 patients with COVID-19 reported in Guizhou province, China to explore risk factors for transforming mild illness to severe.
Methodology: Data of 146 laboratory-confirmed cases were collected and evaluated by the survival analysis of univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.
Results: On initial presentation, patients had fever (51.05%), dry cough (45.45%), headache (16.08%), shortness of breath (7.75%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (13.99%). Among 146 laboratory-confirmed cases, 30 patients (20.55%) had severe illness and needed Intensive Care Unit care for supportive treatment. The remaining patients (116, 79.45%) were non-severe cases. Nineteen (19/146, 13.01%) of 30 patients in the Intensive Care Unit had comorbidities, including hypertension (12, 40.00%), diabetes (5, 16.67%), cardiovascular disease (5, 16.67%) and pulmonary disease (4, 13.33%). For survival analysis, patients who had fever (HR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.31, 8.29) and comorbidities (HR = 9.76, 95% CI = 4.28, 22.23) at baseline were more likely to be admitted into the Intensive Care Unit. Few variables were not related to the survival time of discharge from baseline to discharge and from Intensive Care Unit care to discharge.
Conclusions: Severe patients with COVID-19 should be paid more attention. On initial symptoms, many patients did not have fever, but those with fever were more likely to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Comorbidities were likewise a risk factor of severe COVID-19.
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