Analysis and modeling of COVID-19 epidemic dynamics in Saudi Arabia using SIR-PSO and machine learning approaches
Keywords:COVID-19 epidemic, dynamics modeling, prediction, SIR-PSO model, FF-ANN, performance metrics
Introduction: COVID-19 has become a global concern because it has extensive damage to health, social and economic systems worldwide. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop tools to understand, analyze, monitor and control further outbreaks of the disease.
Methodology: The Susceptible Infected Recovered-Particle SwarmOptimization model and the feed-forward artificial neural network model were separately developed to model COVID-19 dynamics based on daily time-series data reported by the Saudi authorities from March 2, 2020 to February 21, 2021. The collected data were divided into training and validation datasets. The effectiveness of the investigated models was evaluated by using various performance metrics. The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Particle-Swarm-Optimization model was found to well predict the cumulative infected and recovered cases and to optimally tune the contact rate and the characteristic duration of the illness. The feed-forward artificial neural network model was found to be efficient in modeling daily new and cumulative infections, recoveries and deaths.
Results: The forecasts provided by the investigated models had high coefficient of determination values of more than 0.97 and low mean absolute percentage errors (around 7% on average).
Conclusions: Both the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Particle-Swarm-Optimization and feed-forward artificial neural network models were efficient in modeling COVID-19 dynamics in Saudi Arabia. The results produced by the models can help the Saudi health authorities to analyze the virus dynamics and prepare efficient measures to control any future occurrence of the epidemic.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).