Evaluation of diagnostic components and management of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: a prospective study from Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords:tuberculosis, child, drug resistance
Introduction: The diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is difficult and most of the patients are diagnosed clinically. The objective of this study is to reveal the diagnostic and therapeutic components of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis and to analyze the changes that occurred in our country over the years.
Methodology: All patients diagnosed with tuberculosis between 2006 and 2016 were included. Demographic characteristics, diagnostic and treatment outcomes were recorded and patients were followed up prospectively.
Results: A total of 492 patients were included in the study. 97% had Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, 36% were diagnosed with microbiologically-confirmed tuberculosis and 64% were diagnosed with clinically-proven tuberculosis. 94% of the patients had symptoms consistent with tuberculosis, all patients had radiologic findings, 74% had a history of tuberculosis contact and 63% had tuberculin skin test positivity. The diagnoses included primary tuberculosis in 62%, secondary tuberculosis in 21%, progressive primary tuberculosis in 13% and miliary tuberculosis in 4%. 48% of the patients received a treatment regimen containing three drugs as the initial treatment, and drug-related side effects developed in 12%. Isoniazid resistance was detected in 13% of the patients and rifampicin resistance was detected in 8%. None of the patients died due to tuberculosis. In the last 50 years in Turkey, the rates of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and diagnosis of tuberculosis cases have increased and the mortality rates have decreased over the years.
Conclusions: Our study is one of the few prospective studies and revealed the differences between the recent data and the past 50 years in childhood tuberculosis in Turkey.
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