Bacteriostatic effect of Echeveria extracts on diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and non-cytotoxicity on human Caco-2 cells
Keywords:Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, Echeveria spp., methanol extracts, antibacterial effect, non-cytotoxicity, Caco-2 cells
Introduction: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes are important aetiological agents of diarrhoeal illness among children from less developed areas, worldwide. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes strains are increasingly becoming drug resistant, thus effective and accessible therapeutic alternatives are required for their treatment; herbal extracts may be a potential alternative. Aims: to evaluate Echeveria craigiana, E. kimnachii, and E. subrigida methanol extracts antibacterial effect on six diarrheagenic E. coli reference strains and on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells viability and cytokine production.
Methodology: Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes reference strains: typical enteropathogenic E2348/69, enterotoxigenic H10407, enterohaemorrhagic O157:H7/EDL933, enteroinvasive E11, diffusely adherent C18451-A, and enteroaggregative 042 E. coli. E craigiana, E. kimnachii, and E. subrigida leaves, collected at Sinaloa, Mexico, were freeze-dried and macerated in methanol solvent. Antibacterial activity was determined by a novel method developed in our laboratory, bacterial oxygen consumption by polarographic oxygen electrode technique and membrane integrity by two methods (live/dead and protein leakage assays). Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells viability by MTT assay and cytokine production using a Cytometric Bead Array kit.
Results: Extracts concentrations of 100 μg/mL and 5-hour incubation, reduced more than 93% the growth of all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes tested strains and significantly decreased bacterial oxygen consumption, like bacteriostatic antibiotics. After 24-hour incubation methanol extracts had a differential antibacterial effect on each diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes strain. Echeveria extracts did not have any effect on viability and cytokine production of colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
Conclusions: Echeveria methanol extracts have a bacteriostatic effect on all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes strains, thus potentially they could be used as antibacterial agents on diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes-contaminated products and on patients with diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes infections.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).