Bacteriostatic effect of Echeveria extracts on diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and non-cytotoxicity on human Caco-2 cells
Introduction: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes are important aetiological agents of diarrhoeal illness among children from less developed areas, worldwide. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes strains are increasingly becoming drug resistant, thus effective and accessible therapeutic alternatives are required for their treatment; herbal extracts may be a potential alternative. Aims: to evaluate Echeveria craigiana, E. kimnachii, and E. subrigida methanol extracts antibacterial effect on six diarrheagenic E. coli reference strains and on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells viability and cytokine production.
Methodology: Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes reference strains: typical enteropathogenic E2348/69, enterotoxigenic H10407, enterohaemorrhagic O157:H7/EDL933, enteroinvasive E11, diffusely adherent C18451-A, and enteroaggregative 042 E. coli. E craigiana, E. kimnachii, and E. subrigida leaves, collected at Sinaloa, Mexico, were freeze-dried and macerated in methanol solvent. Antibacterial activity was determined by a novel method developed in our laboratory, bacterial oxygen consumption by polarographic oxygen electrode technique and membrane integrity by two methods (live/dead and protein leakage assays). Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells viability by MTT assay and cytokine production using a Cytometric Bead Array kit.
Results: Extracts concentrations of 100 μg/mL and 5-hour incubation, reduced more than 93% the growth of all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes tested strains and significantly decreased bacterial oxygen consumption, like bacteriostatic antibiotics. After 24-hour incubation methanol extracts had a differential antibacterial effect on each diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes strain. Echeveria extracts did not have any effect on viability and cytokine production of colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
Conclusions: Echeveria methanol extracts have a bacteriostatic effect on all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes strains, thus potentially they could be used as antibacterial agents on diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes-contaminated products and on patients with diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes infections.
Copyright (c) 2022 Sandra Olivas-Quintero, Rodolfo Bernal-Reynaga, Catalina Lopez-Saucedo, Samantha Maldonado-Puga, Sylvia Paz Díaz-Camacho, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Francisco Delgado-Vargas, Teresa Estrada-Garcia
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