SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding and susceptibility: perspectives on gender and asymptomatic patients

  • Engku Nur Syafirah Engku Abd Rahman Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Ali MR Murad Al-Fendi Department of Dentistry, Al-Rasheed University College, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ahmad Adebayo Irekeola Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Nurfadhlina Musa Human Genome Center, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Go Furusawa Centre for Chemical Biological, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, Bayan Lepas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Yean Yean Chan Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, symptomatic, asymptomatic, viral shedding

Abstract

Despite efforts to contain and manage the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak which was declared a public health emergency of international concern in January 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the COVID-19 pandemic still remains a major global challenge. Patients who display the classical symptoms of the infection are easily identified, tested, isolated and monitored. However, many cases of infected asymptomatic patients have been documented. These patients are not easily identified even though many evidences suggest that they can spread the virus to others. How and why these COVID-19 asymptomatic presentations occur remain unclear. The many theories and views are conjectural, and supporting evidences are still needed. In this review, we described the trend in SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding and susceptibility, providing perspectives on gender differences and asymptomatic patients. We further discussed how genetics, gender, viral inoculum, and pre-existing immunity may influence asymptomatic presentations in COVID-19 infections. We hope that this article improves our understanding of asymptomatic SAR-CoV-2 infection and it sheds light on some salient areas that should be considered as the search for a potent vaccine continues.

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Published
2022-05-30
How to Cite
1.
Engku Abd RahmanENS, Al-FendiAMM, Irekeola AA, Musa N, Furusawa G, Chan YY (2022) SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding and susceptibility: perspectives on gender and asymptomatic patients. J Infect Dev Ctries 16:768-777. doi: 10.3855/jidc.14721
Section
Coronavirus Pandemic

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