MRSA as an indicator of infection control measures in Turaif General Hospital, Northern Area-Saudi Arabia
Keywords:Antibiotics, infection prevention, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, prevalence, resistance
Introduction: Saudi Arabia can be considered a hot spot for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections with significant regional variations. As far as we know, this is the first study to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA in clinical samples obtained from Turaif general hospital (TGH), Northern Area-Saudi Arabia, and screening the resistance profile to the most regularly used antimicrobials as an indicator for evaluation of the implemented infection control measures.
Methodology: Totally, 410 Samples were collected from patients in TGH with clinically suspected nosocomial infections. MRSA isolates were identified by the classical bacteriological, biochemical, and cefoxitin-based methods as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Confirmation of isolates and testing of their antimicrobial susceptibilities were performed by the automated Vitek 2 compact system.
Results: Totally, 130 nosocomial isolates were detected. Staphylococcus aureus (29.23%) was the most frequently isolated Gram-positive pathogen. MRSA represented 39.47% of Staphylococcus aureus and 11.54% of all isolates. MRSA-causing surgical site infections were the most predominant type of MRSA nosocomial infections representing (25.00%). Recent antibiotic therapy, prolonged hospital stays, and indwelling devices were significant risk factors for the development of MRSA infections. Although all MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, Fosfomycin, and tigecycline, many isolates were resistant to other tested antimicrobials.
Conclusions: Hospital administrators should strengthen the ideal use of antibiotics according to the local hospital policy to control the selective drug pressure on Staphylococcus aureus strains with minimizing exposure to the risk factors by implementing the proper infection control policies.
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Al Jouf University
Grant numbers DSR-2021-01-03187