Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Clostridioides difficile isolates in Algerian hospitals
Keywords:Clostridioides difficile, Algeria, ribotyping, MLST, antibiotic resistance, toxins
Introduction: Clostridioides difficile is a major pathogen responsible for hospital-associated diarrhoea. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of C. difficile isolates in five Algerian hospitals.
Methodology: Between 2016 and 2019, faecal specimens were collected from in-patients and were cultured for C. difficile. Isolates were characterised by toxin genes detection, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-ribotyping, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of antibiotics, and screened for antimicrobial resistance genes.
Results: Out of 300 patient stools tested, 18 (6%) were positive for C. difficile by culture, and were found to belong to 11 different ribotypes (RT) and 12 sequence types (ST): RT 085/ST39, FR 248/ST259, FR 111/ST48, RT 017/ST37, RT 014/ST2, RT 014/ST14, FR 247/new ST, RT 005/ST6, RT 029/ST16, RT 039/ST26, RT 056/ST34 and RT 446/ST58. MLST analysis assigned the isolates to two clades, 1 and 4. Clade 4 was more homogeneous, as it mainly included non-toxigenic isolates. Three toxin gene profiles were detected, two toxigenic, A+B+CDT- (33.3%) and A-B+CDT- (11%); and one non-toxigenic, A-B-CDT- (55.5%). All C. difficile isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin.
Conclusions: Overall prevalence of C. difficile in our healthcare settings was 6%. Antibiotic resistance rates ranged from 72.2% (clindamycin) to 16.6% (tetracycline). This study highlighted a relatively high genetic diversity in term of ribotypes, sequence types, toxin and antibiotic resistance patterns, in the C. difficile isolates. Further larger studies are needed to assess the true extent of C. difficile infections in Algeria.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).