Oligoclonal bands: a laboratory diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
Keywords:measles, oligoclonal bands, panencephalitis, SSPE
The oligoclonal band indicates presence of antibodies specific to the disease, possibly due to the activation of certain clones of B lymphocytes. This intrathecal immunoglobin synthesis can be persistent for months to years, for example, in respons to paramyxoviruses, herpes virus, coxsackievirus, and Treponema pallidum; or can be synthesized for life, for example in multiple sclerosis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). We report a case of SSPE in a 15-year-old male patient. The patient had myoclonic jerks that occurred in the thoracal femoral region. Necessary laboratory tests identified reactive anti-measles IgG, which indicates a previous measles infection or exposure to vaccination. This report describes the usefulness of the oligoclonal bands in the diagnosis of the neurodegenerative disease SSPE that is progressive and fatal to the central nervous system due to persistent measles virus infection in the gray and white matter.
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