Clinico-demographic profile of COVID-19 positive patients - first wave versus second wave – an experience in north-east India
Keywords:COVID-19, north-east-India, associated ARDS, wave, associated mucormycosis, clinico-demographic profile
Introduction: India witnessed two distinct COVID-19 waves. We evaluated the clinico-demographic profile of patients infected during first wave (FW) and second wave (SW) in a hospital in north-east India.
Methodology: Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 specific gene by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction across FW and SW were diagnosed as COVID-19 positive. The clinico-demographic data of these positive patients were retrieved from the specimen-referral-form. Vital parameters including respiratory rate, SpO2, data on COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM), COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) were obtained from hospital records for in-patients. Patients were categorized based on disease severity. The data obtained in both waves were analyzed comparatively.
Results: Out of a total of 119,016 samples tested, 10,164 (8.5%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive (2907 during FW, 7257 during SW). Male predominance was seen across both waves (FW: 68.4%; SW:58.4%), with more children infected during SW. Patients with travel history (24%) and contact with laboratory confirmed cases (61%) were significantly higher during SW relative to FW (10.9% and 42.1% respectively). Healthcare worker infection was higher in SW (5.3%). Symptoms like vomiting [14.8%], diarrhea [10.5%], anosmia [10.4%] and aguesia [9.4%] were more in SW. More patients developed CARDS in SW (6.7%) compared to FW (3.4%) with 85% and 70% patients expiring across FW and SW respectively. No case of CAM is documented in our study.
Conclusions: This was probably the most comprehensive study from north-east India. Industrial oxygen cylinder usage may have been the source of CAM in the rest of the country.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Abhijit, Prof. (Dr.) Annie, Prof. (Dr.) Valarie, Dr. Clarissa, Prof. (Dr.) Anil, Prof. (Dr.) Prasanta, Dr. Vijay, Dr. Himesh, Dr. Peter, Dr. Sumitra, Dr. Neeta, Dr. Sana, Dr. Manisana, Dr. Sagnik, Dr. Sagar
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