Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria

  • Boniface Nwofoke Ukwah Faculty of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
  • Ifeoma Maureen Ezeonu Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
  • Dawn Roellig National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States
  • Lihua Xiao National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States
Keywords: Cryptosporidium, genetic diversity, HAART, HIV-infected persons, diarrheal children

Abstract

Introduction: Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART.

Methodology: A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene.

Results: Twenty-five (6.3%) specimens yielded four Cryptosporidium species, including C. hominis, C. parvum, C. felis, and C. viatorum. C. hominis was the most dominant species with 48.0% occurrence and three identified subtype families: Ia (six specimens), Ib (three specimens), Ie (two specimens), and one un-subtyped species. C. parvum had 44.0% occurrence and two subtype families: IIc (eight specimens) and IIe (three specimens), while C. felis and C. viatorum each had 4.0% occurrence. There were significant differences in Cryptosporidium species distribution between age groups in children and HIV-infected persons, between suburban and urban areas, and between low and high CD4+ cell counts in HIV-infected patients. There were no significant differences in infection rate and species distribution between HIV-infected patients on HAART and those not on HAART.

Conclusions: The results from this study show that there is a high diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria, and that all the C. parvum subtypes identified are most likely anthroponotic in origin.

Author Biographies

Boniface Nwofoke Ukwah, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences,
Microbiologist and Molecular Epidemiologist
Ifeoma Maureen Ezeonu, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Professor of Medical Microbiology and Microbial Genetics
Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Consultant Community Health Paediatrician,
Dawn Roellig, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States
Molecular Epidemiologist, Division of Food-borne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.
Lihua Xiao, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States
Chief Molecular Epidemiologist, Division of Food-borne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.
Published
2017-02-28
How to Cite
1.
Ukwah BN, Ezeonu IM, Ezeonu CT, Roellig D, Xiao L (2017) Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries 11:173-179. doi: 10.3855/jidc.8034
Section
Original Articles