Epidemiology of bacteremia after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the absence of antibiotic prophylaxis
Introduction: Bacterial infections are frequent complications occurring after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT). Herein, we identified the bacterial ecology and its antibiogram in AHSCT patients. We assessed the incidence, contributing factors and outcome of prolonged neutropenia and bacteremia post-AHSCT in the absence of antibacterial prophylaxis.
Methodology: This is a retrospective chart review of 190 adult patients who underwent AHSCT for lymphoma and multiple myeloma, between 2005 and 2015 at a Lebanese hospital.
Results: Most of the isolated bacteria originated from urine (49%) followed by blood (30%) and were mainly Gram-negative (70%). Fluoroquinolone susceptibility was 57% among Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates. Bacteremia was documented in 12.6% of the patients, with a predominant gram-negative etiology having 95% susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. The duration of neutropenia, < or > 7 days, did not affect the incidence of bacteremia (11% vs. 14% respectively, p = 0.17). Patients with lymphoma were more likely to have prolonged neutropenia compared to those with myeloma (p < 0.0001). The use of a central line and the development of central-line infections were significantly higher in Gram-positive bacteremia (p = 0.03, p = 0.008 respectively). Mucositis occurred more in Gram-negative bacteremia (p = 0.02). Total mortality rate was 3.7% in the whole population and that attributed to bacteremia was 12.5% in the bacteremia subgroup. Bacteremia was a predictor for mechanical ventilation (p = 0.003), septic shock and mortality (p = 0.025).
Conclusion: Since organisms causing bacteremia were still highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones and that the duration of neutropenia post-AHSCT didn't affect bacteremia, we concluded that fluoroquinolone prophylaxis is still valid yet, with close monitoring of resistance.
Copyright (c) 2018 Rima Moghnieh, Anas Mugharbil, Ali Youssef, Tamima Jisr, Hani Tamim, Kamal Zahran, Samer Khaldieh, Dania Abdallah, Lyn Awad, Oula Massri, Najat Rachini, Youssef Hamdan, Ahmad Ibrahim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).