Visceral leishmaniasis in Lebanon a report of four cases: case series and review

  • Oussaima Eldbouni Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Pierre Abihanna Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Mona Beaini Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Afaf Minari Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Ibrahim Khalife Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Gladys Gemayel American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
Keywords: Visceral leishmania, leishmania cases, Amphotericin B lipid complex

Abstract

Introduction: Leishmaniasis comprises a complex of vector-borne diseases, caused by more than 20 species of the protozoan genus Leishmania, and ranging from localized skin ulcers to lethal systemic disease. It is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and the Mediterranean region. In the Middle East countries like Syria reports high incidence of the disease. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. Cutaneous form can be disfiguring but visceral form can be lethal.

Methodology: In this article we report the clinical presentation of 4 cases of visceral leishmaniasis; 3 cases were pediatrics and one immunosuppressed adult patient all of them were from Syria from different regions. The diagnosis was made by bone marrow aspirate; PCR was made for 2 of them and was positive for leishmania infantum. All of them were treated with Amphotericn B lipid formulation (ABELCET) with complete response (definite cure).

Results: We report in this article 4 cases of visceral leishmaniasis treated with amphotericin B lipid complex (Abelcet) following the guidelines with complete remission.

Conclusion: Visceral leishmaniasis is a serious disease and if not treated can lead to death. Lebanon is not known to be endemic for leishmania but since the war the ministry of health reported an outbreak of leishmania and mainly cutaneous leishmania. Here we present 4 cases of visceral leishmania and a review of the latest guidelines on the treatment modalities and protocols.

Published
2018-02-22
How to Cite
1.
Eldbouni O, Abihanna P, Beaini M, Minari A, Khalife I, Gemayel G (2018) Visceral leishmaniasis in Lebanon a report of four cases: case series and review. J Infect Dev Ctries 12:31S. doi: 10.3855/jidc.10157
Section
The Lebanese LSIDCM