Infections in patients with lymphoma: An analysis of incidence, relationship and risk factors
Introduction: Bacterial infections and febrile neutropenia (FN) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of infections in lymphoma patients.
Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted on 200 lymphoma patients diagnosed and treated between January 2009 and December 2017 in Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Ankara, Turkey.
Results: The mean follow-up period was 20.09 ± 19.81 months. The incidence of infection episode (IE) was 32.5% (65/200) and FN was 18.5% (37/200). Analysis of the data revealed that patients with IE had significantly higher rates of diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), lower baseline hemoglobin, lower baseline hematocrit, higher baseline lactate dehydrogenase levels, higher usage of central cathater, and a higher number of chemotherapy lines compared to patients with no IE. In logistic regression analysis, disease subtype of PCNSL, usage of central catheter and lactate deyhydrogenase (LDH) were found to increase the risk of infection. The odds ratio for PCNSL was 37.866 (p = 0.003), 2.679 for central catheter (p = 0.008) and 1.001 for LDH (p = 0.011).
Conclusions: The risk of infection in patients with lymphoma was associated with central catheter usage, higher LDH levels and a diagnosis of PCNSL. Baseline hematological parameters were not determined to have any impact on the occurrence of infection. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored more carefully and the maximum level of infection prevention should be taken.
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